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题名: 城市化对周边区域生态系统质量的影响研
作者: 王坤1
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2017-06
授予单位: 中国科学院大学
授予地点: 北京
导师: 周伟奇
关键词: 城市化,周边区域,人类活动强度,生态质量,城乡梯度 ; urbanization, rural area, human activity, ecosystem-quality, urban-rural gradient
其他题名: The impacts of urbanization on ecosystem health in cities’ surrounding rural areas
学位专业: 生态学
中文摘要: 城市化不仅影响城市的生态系统质量,也会对周边区域产生影响。其中,城 市化过程中城市周边区域人口数量的变化(主要表现为向城市流动而减少)和建 设用地的扩张,对周边区域的生态质量影响最为突出。定量研究城市化对周边区 域生态质量的影响,对解决区域生态环境问题和促进社会经济生态的协调发展, 具有重要的科学意义。 本文采用统计数据和多源遥感影像,从城市化影响周边区域生态质量最主要 的两个方面——人类活动强度和建设用地变化,在多个空间尺度上探讨了城市化 对周边区域生态质量的影响。在全国尺度,重点分析了人类活动强度变化对生态 质量的影响;在区域尺度,以京津冀城市群为例,分析了建设用地变化对生态质 量的影响,及其变化的驱动因素;在城市尺度,以北京市为例,综合分析了人类 活动强度和农村建设用地变化对生态质量的影响。 (1)在全国尺度,基于人口普查资料、夜间灯光数据(DMSP/ OLS)和 MODIS 的净初级生产力(NPP)等数据,利用时间序列变化分析等方法,以 DMSP /OLS 和 NPP分别作为人类活动强度和生态质量的表征指标,探究了不同城市化类型 地区的人类活动强度、生态质量变化及其相互关系。主要结果和结论如下: 中国城市化呈现出 8种类型,不同城市化类型地区的人类活动强度变化及其 对生态质量的影响差异较大。① -111型(农村人口减少、城市人口增加导致的 城市化率升高)是我国最主要的城市化类型,主要分布在我国东部和中部地区。 ②农村人口数量减少的城市化类型地区,其生态质量较低但呈增加趋势;农村 人口数量增加的城市化类型地区,生态质量较高但呈降低趋势。③不同城市化 类型地区,沿城乡梯度,农村居民点的人类活动强度均呈现出先快速降低后缓慢 降低的变化趋势;但是其生态质量的城乡梯度变化规律差异较大。④在不同地 理区的同种城市化类型地区,农村居民点的人类活动强度与生态质量的相互关系 沿城乡梯度的变化规律差异较大。以-1,1,1型为例,在东北、华北等地区,人类 活动强度与生态质量呈现负相关关系,并且沿城乡梯度显著增强。 (2)在区域尺度,基于土地覆盖、NPP、生物量、道路交通矢量等数据,利 用景观格局分析、二元 Logistics回归模型等方法,以植被比例、生物量、NPP、 植被破碎度等指标表征生态系统质量,探究了建设用地变化及其对生态质量的影 响,借鉴“建设用地遥相关”概念模型的思想,着重分析了建设用地扩张的近远 程驱动机制。主要结果和结论如下: 京津冀城市群的生态系统质量整体上在提高,建设用地扩张侵占了大量的生 态用地。建设用地扩张受到近、远程因素的共同影响。①建设用地侵占其他土 地覆盖类型是京津冀城市群最主要的土地覆盖变化方式。1984-2015年,建设用 地的面积扩张了 106.12%(1.26万 km2 )。②京津冀城市群的植被比例、生物量、 NPP等指标均呈上升趋势,而植被破碎度呈下降趋势。各地区和各市之间的生态 质量变化存在较大差异。③京津冀城市群建设用地扩张受到近、远程因素的共 同影响,但是两种因素的相对重要性随时间而变化。近程因素是影响京津冀城市 群建设用地扩张的主要因素,但是其重要性呈现逐年减小的趋势,而远程因素的 重要性呈增大趋势。 (3)在城市尺度,基于人口普查资料、MODIS-NDVI、土地覆盖、道路交 通矢量等数据,采用偏相关分析、时间序列变化分析、多元 Logistics回归模型等 分析方法,以人口密度、农村建设用地变化和 NDVI分别表征人类活动强度、农 村居民点变化和生态质量,探究了人类活动强度变化、农村居民点不同变化类型, 及其对生态质量的影响,同时分析了农村居民点产生不同变化类型的驱动机制。 主要结果和结论如下: 人类活动强度减小有利于生态质量的恢复。北京市的农村居民点变化呈现出 多种变化类型,且对生态质量的影响差异较大。①北京市的人类活动强度变化 和生态质量变化均呈现出圈层式结构。城市内部(5环内)和远郊区(6环外) 的人类活动强度减小,生态质量升高;近郊区(5-6环之间)的人类活动强度增 大,生态质量降低。②建立了识别农村居民点斑块消失、萎缩、不变、扩张和 合并(包括被城市吞并、被县城吞并和自身合并 3个子类型)5种类型的技术方 法,发现 1984-2000年最主要的农村居民点变化类型是“扩张”,而 2000-2010年, 多数农村居民点没有变化。③ 1984-1990和 2000-2010年,“扩张”型和“合并” 型农村居民点的生态质量下降幅度显著大于“萎缩”型;而 1990-2000年,“扩 张”型和“合并”型农村居民点的生态质量上升幅度显著小于“消失”型和“萎 缩”型。④不同农村居民点变化类型均受到自然地形因素和社会经济可达性因 素的影响,但不同类之间存在较大差异。自然地形因素对农村居民点消失的影响 呈减小趋势,而社会经济可达性因素对农村居民点扩大(扩张和合并)的影响呈 增大趋势。
英文摘要: China is experiencing a rapid urbanization process. A large number of population is gathering into urban areas from rural areas, and the built-up area is expanding drastically. The rapid urbanization not only affects the ecosystem quality in cities, but also in their surrounding areas. With the increased connection between urban and rural areas, it is crucial to investigate the effects of urbanization on the ecosystem quality in surrounding areas, to better understand the impacts of urbanization and to promote the harmonious development of social, economy, and environment. From the perspectives of human activities and built-up area change, we analyzed the effects of urbanization on ecosystem quality in surrounding area, based on the population census data and various remote data. It was conducted at national, regional (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban megaregion) and city (Beijing) levels. Specifically, we detected the ecological influence of human activities change at national scale, the ecological effect of built-up area changes at regional scale, and the ecological impact of both human activities change and built-up area change at city scale. The results and conclusions displayed as follow: (1) At the national scale, we defined the urbanization types based on the changes of rural population, urban population and urbanization rate, and analyzed its spatial pattern in China; Using the DMSP/OLS nighttime light image and MODIS-NPP data, we detected the changes of human activities, ecosystem quality, and their relationship in different urbanization type regions. We found: China has eight urbanization types, and the human activity intensity change and its influence on ecosystem quality varied in different urbanized type areas. Specifically,① the urbanization type of -111 (urbanization rate increased by rural population decrease and urban population increase ) was the major urbanization type in China that distributed in the East and Middle.② The human activity intensity changes along the urban-rural gradient were consistency in different urbanized type areas. With the distance between rural and urban build-up area increase, the human activities firstly decreased sharply, and then became slowly. However, the change of the ecosystem quality along the urban-rural gradient had great difference between different urbanized type areas.③ The relationships between ecosystem quality and human activities were different between different geographical areas (i.e., the -111 urbanization type). Generally, the decrease of human activities was benefit to the recovery of ecosystem quality, and this positive effect was increasing along the urban-rural gradient. (2) At the regional scale, we analyzed the spatial pattern of ecosystem based on the LULC (Land Use and Land Cover), and the change of ecosystem of quality using the vegetation proportion, fragmentation of vegetation, biomass, and NPP as indexes; we detected the impacts of local and tele factors on built-up area expansion, according the new conception of “Urban Land Teleconnection”. We found: the ecosystem quality generally increased in Beijing-Tianjin-Tianjin megaregion (BTH) during the period, and the rapidly increased built-up area in BTH urban megaregion was affected by both local and tele factors. Specifically,① the built-up area occupation of other ecosystems was the main LULC change type in BTH. The area of urban ecosystem increased 106.12% (12.6 thousand km2 ) during the past three decades, while that of the farmland and wetland decreased 13.28 and 5.13%, respectively.② The ecosystem quality in BTH increased, indicated by the increase of vegetation proportion, biomass, and NPP, and the decrease of vegetation fragmentation. However, the change of ecosystem quality varied from different cities and regions.③ The expansion of developed land was impacted by both local and tele factors, but their impact changed through time. The local factor, including elevator, slope and the distance to the urban area and the road, was the major impact factor, but its importance decreased. However, the importance of the tele factor, i.e., the distance to the prefecture-level city and mega-city, increased during the study period. (3) At city scale, we firstly analyzed the human activities intensity change and its effect on ecosystem quality using the population density and NDVI as indexes; we also presented a new change detection approach on rural residential settlements, and detected their ecological effect with different change types; in addition, the driving factors were detected by the multinomial logistical regression model. We found: the decrease of human activities was benefit to the increase of ecosystem quality. The rural residential settlements in Beijing experienced various change types, and their influence on the ecosystem quality was different. Specifically,① both the changes of human activities and ecosystem quality showed obvious circle structure in space. The ecosystem quality increased while the human activities decreased in urban core and exurban areas, while that was exactly opposite between the 5th Ring and the 6th Ring. ② The new change detecting approach presented in our study classified the rural residential settlement into 5 types: “totally lost”, “shrinking”, “no-change”, “expanding”, and “merged”. The main change type shifted from ‘expansion’ during 1984-2000 to ‘no change’ during 2000-2010.③ The ecosystem quality changes in the rural residential settlements varied greatly with different change types. The decreased ecosystem quality of “merged” and “expanding” settlement was significant larger than that of “totally lost” during 1984-1990 and 2000-2010, however, the decreased ecosystem quality of “merged” and “expanding” settlement was significant smaller than that of “totally lost” and “shrinking” during 1990-2000.④ The changes of rural residential settlements in Beijing were affected by both physical and distance factors, but their impacts changed through time, and varied by types. Especially, the settlements that were totally lost were affected by both physical and distance factors, but settlements that were expanded or merged were mostly affected by distance factors. The impact of physical factors on “totally lost” decreased, while that of distance factors on settlement’s expansion increased.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/38700
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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