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题名: 污染河流浮游动物群落空间分布格局成因解析
作者: 熊薇1
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2017-06
授予单位: 中国科学院大学
授予地点: 北京
导师: 战爱斌
关键词: 污染河流,生物多样性,浮游动物群落,环境选择作用,扩散作用 ; Highly polluted river ecosystems, Biodiversity, Zooplankton communities,Species sorting, Dispersal
其他题名: Analyses on the Spatial Distribution Patterns of Zooplankton Communities in Polluted Rivers
学位专业: 环境科学
中文摘要: 频繁人类活动带来的污染物排放导致河流生态系统成为了全球范围内受人 类干扰最严重的生境之一。水体污染已导致水生生物多样性降低,并改变其地理 分布格局。但是,污染物影响群落组成的过程和机理并不明晰,尤其针对水生态 系统过程具有关键作用的浮游动物群落类群。总体而言,扩散作用(dispersal) 和环境选择作用(species sorting)是决定河流生态系统浮游动物群落结构及地理 分布的两个竞争性过程,而二者的相对重要性具有地理尺度依赖性和环境梯度长 度依赖性。虽然,无污染河流的研究充分表明,环境选择作用只在具有中度扩散 的流域尺度对群落组成具有重要作用,而随着空间尺度减小,如单条河流尺度, 扩散作用增强,环境选择作用不再是影响群落结构的主要驱动力。但是,在污染 河流生态系统,污染物汇入导致水环境对生物区系的胁迫增强,影响浮游动物群 落的主要过程和机理仍不清楚。而对主要作用机制的揭示对于污染水体评价及修 复具有重要的现实指导意义。 鉴于环境选择作用和扩散作用的尺度依赖性,本研究以典型淡水生物类群— 浮游动物为研究对象,拟从三个不同的地理尺度:流域尺度(海河流域)、单条 河流尺度(潮白河)及点源扰动的河段尺度(污水处理厂出水受纳河流)逐一研 究浮游动物群落空间分布格局及导致这种空间分布格局的驱动力,揭示扩散作用 和环境选择作用在驱动浮游动物群落空间分布格局过程中的相对重要性,以揭示 影响浮游动物群落空间分布的作用过程和机制。主要结果和结论如下: 1)流域尺度 流域尺度研究结果表明轮虫群落在海河流域的不同区域具有显著性空间差 异。具体表现为:轮虫群落组成在区域内及区域间水平上均具有高水平的不相似 性(区域内相似性 < 24.49%;区域间不相似性 > 78.52%)。多元统计分析表明局 域环境变量(total nitrogen、ammonia nitrogen、total phosphorus、soluble reactive phosphorus、water temperature)和区域空间变量(latitude)对轮虫群落结构均具 有重要影响。变差分解分析(variance partitioning analysis)结果表明,与空间扩 散作用(4.5%)相比,环境因子对群落空间差异的解释度更高(10.0%),环境梯 度的选择作用是污染河流生态系统中对浮游动物群落结构的主要作用机制。由此, 在高度污染河流生态系统中,在流域地理尺度上,环境选择作用是驱动浮游动物 群落空间分布格局的主要作用过程,即水体污染决定浮游动物的群落结构组成。 2)单条河流尺度 单条河流尺度的研究表明浮游动物群落在潮白河山区段、城市段及农业区段 的环境梯度上具显著性空间差异(global R = 0.544,P < 0.001)。与水体污染相关 的水质变量,如:总磷(TP,P < 0.001)、叶绿素 a(Chl_a,P < 0.01),是导致 这种空间差异的主要环境因子。变差分解分析结果显示,环境因子对群落空间差 异的解释度为 42.4%,大于空间因子的解释度(23.6%)。因此,在单条河流的小 尺度上,环境选择作用是影响浮游动物群落空间分布的主要作用过程,人类活动 导致的污染物排放形成的河流水体高度环境选择压力是形成浮游动物群落地理 分布格局的主要驱动力。 3)点源污染的河段尺度 通过对五条具有不同背景环境条件的污水处理厂出水受纳河流浮游动物群 落多样性的研究表明,不同处理工艺的污水处理厂出水的汇入均对受纳河流浮游 动物群落产生重要影响,且汇入量越大,影响越大,这是一个积累效应过程。即 使是在 800 m的空间尺度,浮游动物高度扩散的条件下,污水处理厂的出水对河 流水体环境的改变导致的环境选择作用足以改变浮游动物群落结构组成。 另外,河流水体本底值不同,污水处理厂出水对河流浮游动物群落的效应不 同。污水处理厂出水为氮磷本底值低且溶氧充足的河流补充氮源,增加河流的初 级生产力,有益于河流浮游动物群落多样性的增加,尤其是后生浮游动物种类, 如北小河;污水处理厂出水为有害物质(如氨氮)浓度高的受纳河流起到稀释有 害物质的作用,有利于河流浮游动物群落多样性的增加,如酒仙桥污水处理厂受 纳河流;而在清河、小红门及高碑店污水处理厂出水受纳河流,出水汇入后 pH、 溶解氧和 Chl_a浓度降低,河流水体温度升高,生物多样性减少,尤其是后生浮 游动物种类和丰度减少。 总之,在三个不同地理尺度的研究表明,在污染河流生态系统中,环境选择 作用是影响浮游动物群落的主要作用机制。本研究的结果还强调,污染导致环境 选择作用增强,即使是在小尺度上,在污染河流生态系统中,环境选择作用是影 响浮游动物群落的主要作用机制。
英文摘要: The biodiversity and its geographical distribution patterns in freshwater ecosystems has been largely transformed globally by the release of anthropogenic pollution. River ecosystems are among the most affected habitats on the Earth by human activities. However, for many communities including ecologically crucial ones such as zooplankton, it is largely unknown how different communities respond to environmental pollution. Collectively, dispersal and species sorting are two competing processes in determining the structure and geographical distribution of zooplankton communities in running water ecosystems such as rivers. However, it is a major challenge to disentangle the relative roles of these two competing processes in governing local community structure, as the powers of these two processes, as well as their complex interactions, are both geographical scale and environmental gradient length dependent. When considering both environmental gradient length and geographical scales together, an increase in environmental heterogeneity is generally associated with an increase in spatial extent, and it is extremely rare that a significant environmental gradient occurs at fine geographic scales in natural running water ecosystems, except in polluted river ecosystems. Thus, we hypothesize that the pollution increases the environmental gradient length and the selection pressure of zooplankton, and determines the structure of zooplankton communities. To test the hypothesis, we study the distribution patterns of zooplankton communities and investigate the relation of each local environmental variable with zooplankton community structure, and assess the relative role of spatial versus the environmental gradient in determining local zooplankton community structure at basin scale (Haihe River), within stream scale (Chaobai River) and the stretch of river (rivers with waste water treatment plant effluent dischange). The results showed that: At the basin scale, we found evidences that both local and regional factors could affect rotifer community structure. Interestingly, further analyses indicated that local factors played a more important role in determining community structure. Thus, our results supported the species sorting hypothesis in highly polluted rivers, suggesting that local environmental constraints, such as environmental pollution caused by human activities, could be stronger than dispersal limitation caused by regional factors to shape local community structure of zooplankton at the basin level. At within stream scale, the results showed distinct patterns of zooplankton communities along the environmental gradient, and chemical pollutant-related factors such as total phosphorus and chlorophyll a were identified as the major drivers for the observed patterns. Further partial redundancy analysis showed that species sorting overrode the effect of dispersal to shape local zooplankton community structure. Thus, our results rejected the dispersal hypothesis and support that species sorting caused by local pollution can largely determine the zooplankton community structure when a significant environmental gradient exist at fine geographical scales in highly polluted running water ecosystems. At the scale of stretch of rivers, we investigated zooplankton communities in rivers impacted by wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent discharge. The results showed that the effluents played an important role on diversity of zooplankton communities, regardless of the differences of characters of WWTPs and background environmental conditions of receiving rivers. The greater the capacity of the WWTP, the greater the impact on zooplankton communities. Moreover, the effects of the point source disturbance on the diversity of zooplankton community overrode the homogenizing effects of dispersal processes, even at the fine scale of 800 m, where the zooplankton was highly diffused, the spcies sorting was sufficient to alter the composition of the zooplankton community structure. In addition, the impacts of effluent on the riverine zooplankton community differed in rivers with the different background environmental conditions. When rivers were with low nitrogen and phosphorus concentration and sufficient dissolved oxygen, the effluents were the nitrogen source of the river ecosytem, and the primary productivity in downstream of the river increased. Consequently, the diversity of zooplankton communities, especially metazoan zooplankton increased. The effluent played the role of diluting the harmful substances in the rivers with high concentrations of harmful substances such as ammonia. The effluent conducived to increase the diversity of the zooplankton community in downstream; In the receiving rivers of the Qinghe WWTP, Xiaohongmen WWTP and Gaobeidian WWTP, after the dischange of effluents, the pH, dissolved oxygen and Chl_a concentration in downstreams decreased, and the temperature rised, which reduced the biodiversity of zooplankton communities in downstream, especially the richness and abundance of the metozoa zooplankton.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/38714
Appears in Collections:中科院环境生物技术重点实验室_学位论文

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作者单位: 1.中国科学院生态环境研究中心

Recommended Citation:
熊薇. 污染河流浮游动物群落空间分布格局成因解析[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学. 2017.
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