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题名: 城市污水处理厂微生物气溶胶特征研究
作者: 许光素1
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2017-12
授予单位: 中国科学院大学
授予地点: 北京
导师: 刘俊新
关键词: 城市污水处理厂,微生物气溶胶,高通量测序,肠杆菌科,致病菌 ; Municipal wastewater treatment plant, Microbial aerosol, High- throughput sequencing, Enterobacteriaceae, Pathogens
其他题名: Study on the Characteristics of Microbial Aerosol in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant
学位专业: 环境工程
中文摘要: 微生物气溶胶广泛存在于自然环境中,但城市污水处理厂中微生物气溶胶的 特殊性及其对相关人群的潜在负面健康效应已引起越来越多的关注。本研究以城 市污水处理厂为对象,开展了微生物气溶胶分布特征及其逸散源的研究,识别污 水处理厂微生物气溶胶中潜在致病菌,为污水处理厂微生物气溶胶风险控制提供 科学依据。 通过对比研究,考察了用于微生物气溶胶监测的自然沉降法、固体撞击法、 液体冲击法和滤膜法等 4种采样的方法,以及微生物培养、克隆文库、Illumina 高通量测序技术等 3种分析方法,研究了每种方法的特点、适用条件,以及能确 定的微生物气溶胶的群落特征,通过综合评价不同方法的利弊,确定固体撞击式 采样法(Andersen六级采样器)、滤膜法(总悬浮颗粒物采样器,流量为 100 min/L 时,采样最短时长为 4 h)和高通量测序技术(Illumina Miseq)分别为可行的污 水处理厂微生物气溶胶采样方法和分析方法。 对我国华北地区、长三角和珠三角地区 10座典型污水处理厂(站)进行了 现场调查研究,涉及 A2 /O、氧化沟和 SBR三种常用工艺,共计布置了 61个采 样点,进行了 21次现场监测。基于 Illumina Miseq对微生物气溶胶群落结构的 解析表明,污水处理厂的细菌气溶胶和真菌气溶胶具有显著的地域差异性和污水 处理工艺差异性,在同一地域,污水处理厂进水段的细菌群落组成具有高度的相 似性;在门类水平上,细菌气溶胶主要以厚壁菌门、变形菌门、放线菌门和拟杆 菌门为优势菌门;子囊菌门、纤毛门和担子菌门为真菌气溶胶优势菌门。统计结 果显示,可培养细菌气溶胶浓度(最高为 51590 CFU/m3)远远高于真菌气溶胶 的浓度(最高为 1873 CFU/m3),两者与风速和光照强度均呈现显著的负相关关 系(p<0.01);在通风条件差、湿度高的室内,细菌和真菌气溶胶的浓度和粒径 (3.3-4.7 μm)均高于室外污水处理单元处;在调研的污水处理厂,具有稳定气 象条件的室内工段或者加盖设备内的 TSP浓度分布较其它工况下的浓度稳定。 对污水处理厂微生物气溶胶进行了源解析,结果表明,污水处理厂细菌气溶 胶的主要源包括污水、污泥和污水处理厂上风向的环境空气。在具有污水处理设 施的房间内,细菌气溶胶群落组成明显与室外污水处理单元不同,污水 /污泥是 室内细菌气溶胶的主要逸散源,而环境空气对室外污水处理单元微生物气溶胶的 浓度和组成具有明显的影响,主要取决于气候条件。研究发现,污水处理厂的污 水和污泥中含有丰富的肠杆菌科细菌,而污水厂上风向环境空气中几乎检测不到 这类菌,因此,肠杆菌科细菌可以作为污水处理厂微生物气溶胶标识菌。监测结 果表明,室内细菌气溶胶中含有较大比例的肠杆菌和机会致病菌,而室外细菌气 溶胶所含比例极少。不同地域污水处理厂的肠杆菌科细菌群落结构具有较高的相 似性,共鉴定到 18属共 30种,其中 13个菌属为肠杆菌科致病菌;肠杆菌属, Escherichia-Shigella和拉乌尔菌属为肠杆菌科细菌优势菌属。
英文摘要: Microbial aerosols are ubiquitous in the natural environment. However, microbial aerosols in urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have attracted more and more attention due to their specificity and their potential negative health effects on related populations. This study focused on distribution characteristics, emission source, and the potential pathogens identification of microbial aerosol in WWTPs, providing scientific basis for the risk control of microbial aerosols in WWTPs. There were four sampling methods (natural sedimentation method, solid impact method, liquid impinger method, and membrane filter method) and three analysis methods (microbial culture method, clone library, high-throughput sequencing) adopted in this study, respectively. Comparative studies were carried out on characteristics and application conditions of each method, and the community structure variations of microbial aerosols determined by different sampling and analysis methods, respectively. Through comprehensive evaluation of advantages and disadvantages of different methods, solid impact method (Andersen six-stage sampler), the filter membrane method (total suspended particulate sampler, the flow rate of 100 min/L, the shortest sampling time is 4 h) and high-throughput sequencing technology (Illumina Miseq) were identified as the viable sampling and analytical method for the field survey of microbial aerosol in WWTPs, respectively. Twenty one times of filed studies had been carried out in sixty one sampling sites of ten WWTPs (or wastewater treatment station) distributed in North China, Yangtze River Delta and Pearl River Delta during. Wastewater treatment processes involved in A2s/O, SBR, and oxidation ditch which are widely used in WWTPs. Community tructure of microbial aerosol were analyzed by Illumina Miseq. Results shown that significant regional differences and treatment processes differences were both observed in bacterial aerosols and fungal aerosols, respectively. And there was a high community similarity of bacterial aerosol collected from influent sections of WWTPs in the same region. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinomycetes, and Bacteroides were the dominant phyla for the bacterial aerosol. And Ascomycota, Ciliophora, and Basidiomycota dominated in the fungal aerosol. The statistic results showed that the concentration of culturable airborne bacteria (maximum, 51590 CFU/m3 ) was much higher than that of fungi (maximum, 1873 CFU/m3 ). And there were significantly negative correlation between culturable airborne bacteria and fungi concentration with wind speed and light intensity, respectively (p<0.01). Microbial aerosol in indoor sections with low wind speed and high humidity were with higher concentration and particle size (3.3-4.7 μm) than those in other sections. In the investigated WWTPs, the concentrations of total suspended particles in indoor sections or capping equipment with stable weather conditions is more stable than in other conditions. Source analysis of microbial aerosol in WWTPs showed that sewage, sludge, and ambient air in the upwind of WWTPs were the emission source of airborne bacteria in WWTPs. The community composition of airborne bacteria in indoor sections with treatment facilities were significantly different from that in outdoor sections. The sewage/sludge was the main source of indoor airborne bacteria in WWTPs. Ambient air has a significant effect on the concentration and community composition of microbial aerosols in outdoor sewage treatment units, which mainly depends on meteorological conditions. In addition, there are abundant Enterobacteriaceae bacteria in the sewage and sludge of WWTPs, while they are almost undetectable in the upwind ambient air of WWTPs. Therefore, Enterobacteriaceae bacteria could be served as indicators of the microbial aerosol in WWTPs. Monitoring results indicated that bacterial aerosol in indoor sections contained large proportion of Enterobacteriaceae and opportunistic pathogens, while the proportion of that in outdoor bacterial aerosols was very low. Moreover, the community structure of the Enterobacteriaceae were with high similarity in different WWTPs. There were eighteen genera and thirty species of Enterobacteriaceae were identified, and thirteen genera of which were pathogens. Enterobacter, Escherichia-Shigella and Raoultella were the dominant genera of Enterobacteriacea bacteria.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/38722
Appears in Collections:水污染控制技术研究室_学位论文

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