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题名: 典型地区人群头发中二恶英及多氯联苯的暴露特征研究
作者: 闫楠1
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2017-05
授予单位: 中国科学院大学
授予地点: 北京
导师: 刘文彬
关键词: 二恶英,多氯联苯,头发,工业区,生活垃圾焚烧 ; PCDD/Fs, PCBs, Human hair, Industrial region, Municipal solid wasteincineration
其他题名: Exposure Levels of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in Human Hair from Typical Areas
学位专业: 环境科学
中文摘要: 二恶英(PCDD/Fs)和多氯联苯(PCBs)属于持久性有机污染物(POPs)。 它们具有相似的物理化学性质、毒性、毒性机理以及环境行为,它们可以在焚 烧、冶金等工业热过程中无意产生,也被称作 UP–POPs。 对生物指示物的监测可以较准确地评估人群对环境中污染物的暴露情况。 常见的生物指示材料有血液、母乳以及脂肪等。然而这些侵入性或半侵入性采 集的样品具有成本高、采样困难等缺陷。而人体头发样品属于非侵入性采集的 生物指示材料,采样成本低、易于采集、可长时间保存等优势使其越来越被广 泛地应用在人体 POPs暴露的评估中。 本研究主要针对典型的 UP–POPs产生区域,包括生活垃圾焚烧厂周边区域 以及工业开发区,以人体头发作为生物指示材料,共采集 48个头发样品,分析 居住在研究区域的居民对二恶英以及多氯联苯的暴露情况,分析两种 POPs的 浓度水平及其同类物在人体内的分布特征。另外,本研究还探讨了影响人体内 二恶英和多氯联苯含量与组成的多种因素,例如年龄与性别等。本文还主要分 析了研究人群体内二恶英和多氯联苯的潜在来源以及暴露途径,同时对比相关 研究的结果,分析本研究中人体对 POPs的暴露情况。 本研究检测了 17种 2,3,7,8–PCDD/Fs同类物以及 18种多氯联苯同类物。 采集自生活垃圾焚烧厂周边居民的头发样品中,总 PCDD/Fs的平均浓度值 20.6 pg g-1,工业开发区的头发样品中,总 PCDD/Fs的平均浓度值 23.9 pg g-1,均高 于对照区的浓度。生活垃圾焚烧厂周边居民的 TEQ均值为 4.47 pg WHO–TEQg -1,高于其他两个区域,12378–PeCDD是主要的毒性贡献同类物(2.45 pg WHO– TEQ g-1),人群具有相对较高的毒性暴露风险。在三个研究区域,OCDD都是 主要的贡献同类物。在对照区,高氯代二恶英是主要的同类物;而在垃圾焚烧 厂周边区域,除了高氯代二恶英,低氯代二恶英相对其他两个区域含量也较高。 头发中相对较高的低氯代二恶英可能来源于吸附在头发表面的大气颗粒物等。 在工业开发区居民所采集的头发样品中,总多氯联苯含量的平均值为 44.3 ng g–1,总的 dl–PCBs浓度为 118 pg g–1,均高于对照区的含量。主要的 dl–PCBs 以及指示性 PCBs的贡献同类物分别为 CB 118以及 CB 52,分别占总量的 40.5% 和 49.5%。CB 126因其较高的毒性当量因子是 dl–PCBs主要的毒性贡献同类物。 四氯联苯是样品中主要的同系物,低氯代多氯联苯的浓度要高于高氯代多氯联 苯。根据目标污染物的分布特征可得,头发中 POPs主要通过两种暴露途径在 头发中蓄积,饮食摄入和大气沉降。居住在工业开发区附近的居民的多氯联苯 暴露水平较高,更易暴露在较高浓度多氯联苯的环境中,也说明在聚集有多种 工业污染源的地区,多氯联苯的产生量相对较高。而在对照区内,多氯联苯污 染相对较少,环境更清洁,人群的多氯联苯暴露也较少。 在本研究中,对头发样品中二恶英的浓度与对应受试者年龄之间的关系进 行了探讨,二恶英的浓度随着年龄的增加有上升的趋势,年龄越大,暴露时间 长,污染物蓄积量越多。但两者的相关关系并不强,可能是因为头发中的污染 物蓄积水平主要还受内暴露的影响,因此饮食结构、不同人对化合物的蓄积能 力等都会影响不同年龄人群的暴露情况。 分析人体头发中的二恶英以及多氯联苯与性别之间的相关性,发现大部分 同类物的含量女性高于男性,而根据 t检验不同性别头发样品中的目标污染物 不存在显著性差异。 与相关研究的结果进行对比发现,无论是来自工业区还是生活垃圾焚烧厂 周边,人群的二恶英和多氯联苯的暴露程度都低于一些国内的其他研究结果, 尤其是低于对我国电子垃圾拆解地居民(包括职业暴露人群以及妇女)的研究。 然而,本研究结果表明居住在典型污染区域的居民相对对照人群依然有较高的 POPs暴露水平以及暴露风险。应该更多关注这些典型污染区人群的 POPs暴露。
英文摘要: Polychlorinated dibenzo–p–dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are included in persistent organic pollutants (POPs). They have similar physicochemical properties, toxicities and toxic mechanisms, and environmental behaviors. These POPs can be unintentionally produced during industrial thermal processes, which can also be called UP–POPs. Human biomonitoring can be used to assess the exposure levels of human to pollutants more accurately. The commonly used biological indicators are human blood, breast milk and adipose tissues etc. However, these materials are all the invasively sampled materials, which have high cost and are usually difficult to sample. Human hair samples are non–invasively sampled materials. They are cost effective, easy to sample and store, which make them become increasingly popular in assessing the human exposure to POPs. The study areas in this research are typical industrial region and surrounding area of a municipal solid waste incinerators, where UP–POPs are mainly produced. Human hair samples taken from 48 residents living in these areas were used as bio– indicator to analyze the exposure levels of residents to dioxins and PCBs. The concentrations, congener distributions and homologues profiles of the pollutants were analyzed. In addition, we also discussed about the factors which could affect the POPs exposure levels in human body, such as age and gender. We also analyze the potential sources and the exposure pathways of dioxins and PCBs, and make a comparison with other related studies. Seventeen 2,3,7,8–PCDD/Fs congeners and 18 PCBs congeners were analyzed in this research. The mean concentrations of PCDD/Fs in human hair from the surrounding area of the municipal solid waste incinerators and industrial region were 20.6 pg g–1 and 23.9 pg g–1, which were all higher than those in the control site. The toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) in the surrounding area of the municipal solid waste incinerators was 4.47 pg WHO–TEQ g–1, higher tha other two areas. 12378–PeCDD was the main contributor to TEQ (2.45 pg WHO–TEQ g–1). OCDD was the main contributor congener in three areas. In the control site, high–chlorinated dioxins were the main congeners, while in the surrounding area of the municipal solid waste incinerators, both high–chlorinated and low–chlorinated dioxins had high concentrations. Relatively higher concentrations of low–chlorinated dioxins in human hair may come from atmospheric particulates absorbed on the hair surface. The mean concentrations of the total PCBs and dioxin–like PCBs (dl–PCBs) in the human hair from industrial development region were 44.3 ng g–1 and 118 pg g–1 , which were relatively higher than those in the samples from control sites. The dominant dl–PCBs congener and indicator PCB congener were CB 118 and CB 52, with the percentage of 40.5% and 49.5%, respectively. CB 126 was the major contributor to the total WHO–TEQ of dl–PCBs due to its high Toxicity Equivalency Factor. Tetrachlorobiphenyl was the main homologue and the concentrations of low– chlorinated biphenyls are higher than high–chlorinated biphenyls, indicating that the sources of PCBs in the hair were from both dietary intake and atmospheric deposition. Residents living in the industrial region had higher exposure levels and were more likely to be exposed to the environment with high PCBs concentrations. In the control site, the PCBs pollution was relatively lower and the risk of human exposure was lower. In this research, we analyze the relationship between the concentrations of PCDD/Fs and the age of the participants. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs were increasing with the age. The concentrations of pollutants would be higher with the increasing exposure time. But this relationship was not significant. The possible reason might be that the exposure level are also influenced by internal exposure. Therefore the dietary structure or the different bioaccumulation capacities of individuals all could affect the exposure levels with different ages. There was no significant correlation between the concentrations of PCDD/Fs, dl–PCBs and gender of the participants. Although most congeners had higher concentrations in female than those in male, the t–test showed no significant difference. The comparison with other related studies showed that the human exposure levels in this research were lower than those in other studies in China, especially lower than those in the electronical waste recycling sites. However, the human exposure to dioxins and PCBs in the study areas were higher than the control area, indicating that the residents here had higher exposure risks. More attention should be paid to the environmental or occupational exposure to UP–POPs presented in these areas.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/38725
Appears in Collections:环境化学与生态毒理学国家重点实验室_学位论文

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作者单位: 1.中国科学院生态环境研究中心

Recommended Citation:
闫楠. 典型地区人群头发中二恶英及多氯联苯的暴露特征研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学. 2017.
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