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题名: 城镇家庭物质流分析及其在可持续消费中的应用
作者: 严丽1
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2017-05
授予单位: 中国科学院大学
授予地点: 北京
导师: 刘晶茹
关键词: 家庭代谢 ; 物质流分析 ; household metabolism, material flow accounting, sustainable householdconsumption ; 可持续消费
其他题名: Urban household material flow accounting and its application in sustainable consumption
学位专业: 环境工程
中文摘要: 生产和消费是许多环境问题产生的主要原因。生产端引起的环境问题早已引 起人们广泛的关注,而由消费引起的环境问题却尚未得到足够的重视和深入的研 究。家庭作为社会终端消费的基本单元,是可持续消费的主要研究对象。物质流 分析方法在家庭层面上的研究仍较少,可以揭示家庭消费行为对资源存量及流量 的影响,为城市资源管理、城市共生系统设计及基础设施建设提供重要依据,值 得深入的探讨和分析。相对农村家庭,城镇家庭属于高收入群体,是消费的主体, 其消费模式为农村家庭所效仿。另外,我国城镇化进程不断加快,城镇家庭消费 的产品和服务快速增长。因此,从资源物质利用角度来研究城镇家庭消费的资源 环境影响重要且必要。 本文以中国城镇家庭为研究对象,探索平均每个城镇家庭在一年的时间内, 为满足生活需求,与自然经济系统的物质交换情况,其中包括物质输入、储存和 输出过程。本文建立了长时间尺度中国城镇家庭 7类 82种消费品的消费数据清 单和材料变化清单,应用物质流分析方法,评价改革开放 30多年来中国城镇家 庭的资源利用变化特征,并提出相应的可持续消费政策建议。本文主要结论包括: (1)中国城镇家庭仍处于物质积累的阶段。城镇家庭直接物质投入从 1980-2015年经历了上升—平稳—下降—回升的阶段。从物质输入的构成上来看, 水的投入量占城镇家庭直接物质投入的 80-90%左右;矿物质投入比例从 90年代 开始保持增长趋势;生物质、化石燃料的占比重有所下降,这与我国城镇居民的 膳食结构和生活用能结构转变息息相关。从物质输出结构来看,城镇家庭物质总 输出量在变化趋势上与输入量一致,比较显著的是户均生活能源燃料产生的废气 逐年降低。从物质存量上来看,家庭所拥有的物质存量呈现稳步上升趋势。中国 城镇家庭仍处于物质积累的阶段。 (2)从各消费类别上看,居住和食品仍然是资源消耗的主要环节,我国城 镇家庭正在向舒适型、服务型生活消费方式转变。 (3)中国城镇家庭物质投入总量、输出总量及存量增加量处于持续增加趋 势,城镇家庭的物质量占国家经济系统物质量的 15%左右,尤其是存量净增加量 逐年上升,说明我国城镇家庭成为物质积累的主要贡献者。 根据研究结果,识别出家庭消费中的关键消费类别和重要的资源密集型产品, 提出了 5条针对性的政策建议,为家庭物质流分析在可持续消费领域中的应用提 供数据支撑。 代谢研究一直未能真正将“黑箱”打开,本文创新性地将物质流分析方法用 于家庭层面的代谢分析,建立了基于静态模型的城镇家庭物质流核算框架,开展 了社会“细胞尺度”物质代谢过程核算及其机制分析,为城市代谢研究提供新的 视角。基于本文所建立的中国家庭物质流分析核算框架,可以应用于其它地域尺 度、不同消费群体和不同消费模式的城镇家庭物质流核算,为家庭层面上的物质 流核算提供了较为规范完善的指标体系,这是本研究区别于社会经济代谢方法分 析家庭代谢的主要创新点。
英文摘要: Production and consumption is the main cause of many environmental problems. The environmental problems caused by the production side has already inspired widespread attention, while the environmental problem caused by consumption doesn't get enough attention and in-depth research. Household is the fundamental unit of social consumption, also the main object of sustainable consumption research. Although there are few researches on household-scale material flow accounting, they present the impact of household consumption activities on resource stock and flow and provide important evidence for municipal resource management, symbiotic system design and infrastructure construction. Material stock of household sector has played a significant role in resource flow structure, which deserves in-depth exploration and analysis. Compared with rural household, urban household belongs to high-income group, which is the main contributor of consumption. The consumption of urban household is modeled by the rural household. Meanwhile, accompanied by the urbanization, the goods and service consumed by urban household rise rapidly. Consequently, it’s important and necessary to measure the resource and environmental impact of urban household consumption from the perspective of resource use. In this study, we select an average Chinese urban household as the research object, and explore the material exchange to meet the demand of normal family life with the natural system and social-economic system in one year's time, including the material input, storage and output process. This paper established a long time scale consumption inventory and material composition of Chinese urban household articles, containing 7 categories and 82 products. With advantage of material flow accounting, we assess the resource use of urban household and its variation characteristics since the reform and opening up. Also, we put forward the corresponding policy and suggestions on sustainable consumption. The main research conclusions include: (1)Chinese urban household remains in the stage of material accumulation. The direct material input of an average urban household rises rapidly, then decreases slightly and finally keeps increasing. From the point of view on the composition of the material input, the DMI of urban household depends mostly on the water use for domestic consumption about 80-90%; the proportion of mineral input rises year by year after 1980s, due to the further increase of residential building area and increasing variety and quantity of goods; on the contrary, the ratio of biomass and fossil fuels is relatively lower, for the reason that people’s dietary structure and energy consumption structure has been transformed. From the point of material output structure, the change trend of the total output per household is consistent with that of the material input. As for the composition of material output, the waste water remains the most part; nothing but the gas emission experienced a drop proportion with the cleaner energy use in large does. From the point of material stock per household, it rises steadily. It’s estimated that the material stock of urban household will continue to improve in the future for a long time according to the current trend. China's urban households are still in the stage of material accumulation. (2) From the view of the consumption category, housing and food are still the main sources of resource use. Furthermore, it’s worth mentioning that the transport and communications consumption grows rapidly, which indicates that urban residents are pursuing service-oriented consumption patterns. (3) The material input, output and net additions to stock of total Chinese urban household remain rising and a proportion of 15% in the national economic system. The urban household has become the main body of material accumulation. According to the results, we put forward 5 policies, in order to provide the data support on the application in sustainable household consumption. Metabolism analysis has been always unable to open the “black box”. In this article, we are the first to apply material flow accounting to household metabolism analysis, establish the accounting framework of urban household material flow, and conduct the “cell-scale” material metabolism measurement and mechanism analysis, in order to provide new insight for metabolism analysis at other levels. The accounting framework of Chinese urban household material flow analysis can be applied to the material flow accounting at other regional-scale or different consumer groups. Moreover, the result has a strong comparability with the similar studies, which is the main innovation point and the application value of this research.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/38726
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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作者单位: 1.中国科学院生态环境研究中心

Recommended Citation:
严丽. 城镇家庭物质流分析及其在可持续消费中的应用[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学. 2017.
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