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题名: 微污染地表水源水深度处理工艺研究
作者: 杨 凯1
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2017-05
授予单位: 中国科学院大学
授予地点: 北京
导师: 杨 敏 ; 于建伟
关键词: 饮用水,微量污染物, O3/BAC工艺,溴酸盐,O3/H2O2 ; Micropollutants, O3/BAC process, Bromate, O3/H2O2
其他题名: Research on Advanced Treatment Processes for Micropolluted Surface Source Water
学位专业: 环境工程
中文摘要: 随着水源污染的加剧,一些水源表现出高有机物、嗅味以及多种微量污染物 共存的水质特征,对于这类水源的处理,应用臭氧生物活性炭( O3/BAC)深度 处理工艺已普遍成为共识。然而对于深度处理工艺的应用,在水厂工艺设计及运 行过程中仍欠缺相应的技术支撑。尤其对于同时含有较高溴离子的水源来说,由 于应用臭氧处理技术存在溴酸盐超标风险,通过投加过氧化氢( H2O2)等方式 虽能降低溴酸盐的生成量,但投加后是否会对臭氧氧化的处理效果产生影响仍需 要进一步的评价,因此,如何在保证特征污染物去除效果的基础上有效控制溴酸 盐等副产物的生成,需要结合水源水质情况进行针对性的研究。 本论文针对黄浦江微污染水源,利用中试连续实验并结合水厂实际工艺评 价,以有机物、嗅味和嗅味物质、农药、药物和个人护理品等多种微量污染物以 及溴酸盐等副产物为主要指标,对臭氧生物活性炭深度处理工艺的去除效果和适 用性进行了优化研究,主要取得如下成果: (1)对水源水的典型污染物特征进行了调查,其中 CODMn浓度范围从 4.50 到 6.84 mg/L,并对 120种目标微量污染物进行了检测,共检出了包括嗅味物质 (二甲基二硫醚 30.11-47.25 ng/L、双(2-氯异丙基)醚 43.22-56.44 ng/L和 2-甲 基异莰醇 12.24-16.88 ng/L等)、农药(阿特拉津 91.26-360.24 ng/L和乙草胺 42.16-127.71 ng/L等)、药物和个人护理品(磺胺甲嘧啶 6.05-14.72 ng/L和咖啡 因 46.76-239.45 ng/L等)和全氟化合物( PFOA 74.27-161.27 ng/L和 PFOS 4.26-15.50 ng/L等)在内的 47种主要微量污染物。 (2)对不同臭氧投加方式下的深度处理工艺效果进行了研究,发现臭氧投 加量为 1.0-1.5 mg/L时,预臭氧+BAC以及主臭氧+BAC组合工艺去除 CODMn、 多种药物和个人护理品、嗅味物质以及农药的效果相近,去除率分别为 63.34%、 89.14%、92.29%和 67.03%。主臭氧投加量在 3.0 mg/L条件下时溴酸盐出现超标, 而在预臭氧条件下无溴酸盐生成,因此,预臭氧+BAC可作为高含溴离子水源 处理的一个选择。 (3)对投加过氧化氢后O3/BAC的处理效果进行了比较,发现臭氧投加量分 别为1.5和2.0 mg/L,H2O2/O3的比值分别为0.5、1.0和2.0时,均可有效抑制溴酸 盐的生成。H2O2的投加,①对DOC和嗅味强度(FPA)的去除没有明显影响,② 嗅味物质的去除率随着H2O2/O3比值的升高先降后升,③农药的去除率有所提升, 1.5 mg/L时由24%提高到64%,2.0 mg/L时由56%提高到65%,④对全氟化合物 (PFCs)无法有效去除。 (4)对砂滤后置对 O3/BAC深度处理工艺效果的影响进行了研究,发现砂滤 后置出水的浊度和颗粒数分别比常规 O3/BAC深度处理工艺平均低约 30.73%和 11.54%,而 COD在砂滤后置中平均高约 7.8%,这主要是因为将砂滤置于处理工 艺末端后,其对颗粒态有机物的截留功能没有发挥,从而损失了去除有机物和微 量污染物的效率;另外,砂滤后置工艺对不同微量污染物的去除效果有所降低 (6.34%-39.33%),可能与活性炭滤池反冲周期缩短从而降低了生物作用有关。
英文摘要: With the aggravation of water pollution, it has become a consensus to use the ozone-biological activated carbon (O3/BAC) advanced treatment process to treat water with high concentration of organic matter, odor and a variety of micropollutants. However, for the application of advanced processing technology, process design and operation in waterworks are still lack of corresponding technical support. Due to the application of ozone technology may lead to the formation of excess concentrations of bromate, especially, during treatment of the water source with high concentration of bromide ions, it is a available mehtod to reduce the amount of bromate production by adding hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or other ways, but further evaluation is needed for the influence of H2O2 addition on the effect of ozone oxidation. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out pertinent research on water quality of water source to control the formation of byproducts such as bromate effectively based on ensuring the removal effect of characteristic pollutants. In this study, combining with the actual process of waterworks evaluation, pilot scale experiments were performed to treat micro-polluted water of Huangpu (HP) River. To optimize the removal effect and applicability of the treatment process of O3/BAC, organic matter, a variety of micropollutants such as odor and odorants, pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, and bromate were taken as the research objectives. Conclusions were as follows: (1) A survey of characteristics of typical pollutants present in the water source was conduct; concentration of CODMn ranged from 4.50 to 6.84 mg/L, and 47 main micropollutants were detected, including odorants (dimethyl disulfide 30.11-47.25 ng/L, bis(2-chloroisopropyl) ether 43.22-56.44 ng/L and 2-Methylisoborneol 12.24-16.88 ng/L, etc.), pesticides (atrazine 91.26-360.24 ng/L and acetochlor 42.16-127.71 ng/L, etc.), pharmaceuticals and personal care products (sulfamethazine 6.05-14.72 ng/L and caffeine 46.76-239.45 ng/L, etc.) and perfluorinated compounds (PFOA 74.27-161.27 ng/L and PFOS 4.26-15.50 ng/L, etc.). (2) The effect of advanced treatment process under different ozone dosing modes was studied, and it was found that both combined processes of pre-ozonation+BAC and post-ozonation+BAC permitted similar performance in removing CODMn, pharmaceuticals and personal care products and pesticides, under an ozone dose of 1.0-1.5 mg/L with removal rate were 63.34%, 89.14%, 92.29% and 67.03%, respectively. There was no bromate formation while applying pre-ozone, but the bromate formation may excess national standard when the post-ozone dose was 3.0 mg/L. Therefore, pre-ozonation+BAC processes might be a choice for treatment of water source with high concentration of bromide ions. (3) The effect of addition of H2O2 on O3/BAC was compared, and it was found that under the ozone dose of 1.5 and 2.0 mg/L, respectively, and the H2O2/O3 value of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0, respectively, the formation of bromate can be effectively inhibited. The addition of H2O2①had no obvious effect on the removal of DOC and odor intensity (FPA),②had made the removal rate of odorants decreased at the beginning and then increased with the augment of H2O2/O3 value,③increased the pesticides removal rate from 24% to 64% under the ozone dose of 1.5 mg/L, and from 56% to 65% of 2.0 mg/L,④Perfluorinated compounds could not be eliminated after H2O2 addition. (4) The effect of rear sand filter on the O3/BAC advanced treatment process was studied, and it was found that O3/BAC process with rear sand filtration permitted lower turbidity and particles in the finished water than the conventional O3/BAC process by averagely 30.73% and 11.54%,respectively, but also with a higher COD value by 7.8%. This is mainly because sand filter had not played a role in intercepting the particulate organic matter which might result in sacrificing efficiency in the removals of organic matter and micropollutants after it was relocated at the end of the treatment process; on the other hand, that the removals of different micropollutants by the rear sand filter O3/BAC process had declined to a certain extent (6.34%-39.33%) may be connected with that the shortened backwash period of BAC filter lessen the biological effects.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/38727
Appears in Collections:环境水质学国家重点实验室_学位论文

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作者单位: 1.中国科学院生态环境研究中心

Recommended Citation:
杨 凯. 微污染地表水源水深度处理工艺研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学. 2017.
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