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题名: 废气生物处理及微生物气溶胶逸散研究
作者: 杨凯雄1
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2017-05
授予单位: 中国科学院大学
授予地点: 北京
导师: 李琳
关键词: 废气生物处理,常温生物滤池,高温生物滤塔,微生物群落结构,微生 物气溶胶逸散 ; biotechniques for waste gases treatment, biofilter, full-scale thermophilic biofilter, microbial community structure, bioaerosol emission
其他题名: Study of biotechniques for waste gas treatment and bioaerosol emission
学位专业: 环境工程
中文摘要: 污水处理、污泥处理、石油化工、垃圾填埋等过程会大量的废气,生物处理 法具有高效、低廉、二次污染小等优点,被广泛用于废气处理。废气生物反应器 填料上附着有大量的微生物,在进气气流作用下有可能逸散出生物反应器形成微 生物气溶胶。为此,本研究分别以处理 SO2和二甲苯废气的常温生物滤池及处理 含 SO2的污泥干化尾气的高温生物滤塔为研究对象,考察常温生物滤池和高温生 物滤塔的运行效果,分析常温生物滤池和高温生物滤塔填料上微生物的群落特 征,考察常温生物滤池和高温生物滤塔出气口微生物气溶胶逸散及其影响因素。 常温生物滤池对 SO2和二甲苯的去除率都可以达到 90%以上,二甲苯的去除 率受进气中 SO2浓度影响较大。常温生物滤池对 SO2和二甲苯的去除能力均随着 两种物质的进气负荷增加而增加。稳定运行阶段高温生物滤塔对进气中的 SO2、 NH3和 TVOCs的去除率分别为 97%、90%、93%,对 SO2、NH3和 VOCs的去除 能力随着其进气负荷增加呈增长趋势。提高填料含水率,NH3和 VOCs的去除率 增加。 常温生物滤池填料上微生物数量随着运行时间而增加,填料上主要微生物为 硫细菌和二甲苯降解菌,如 Pseudomonas sp.、Bacillus sp.、Paenibacillus sp.、 Brevibacillus sp.和 Acinetobacter sp.,进气 SO2和二甲苯浓度变化会改变常温生物 滤池填料上微生物种群结构。高温生物滤塔填料上微生物数量随着运行时间而不 断增加,克隆文库结果显示填料上微生物种群结构和多样性与进气组分密切相 关。填料上存活的微生物以脱硫菌(Sphingobacterium sp.、Bacillus sp.、 Pseudomonas sp.、Thiobacillus sp.)、脱氮菌(Comamonas sp.、Diaphorobacter sp.) 和降解有机物的菌(Alcaligenes sp.、Brevundimonas sp.、Paracoccus solventivorans strain、Stenotrophomonas sp.)为主。填料含水率会改变高温生物滤塔填料上微 生物种群结构,提高填料含水率,填料上微生物的种类多样性提高。 常温生物滤池运行的整个过程中,出气口微生物逸散的总细菌、硫细菌和二 甲苯降解菌的平均浓度分别为 318CFU/m3、48CFU/m3、93CFU/m3。出气口逸散 的微生物的种群结构与填料上主要微生物的种群结构密切相关。高温生物滤塔出 气口逸散的细菌浓度达到 4744CFU/m3,细菌主要是假单胞菌属 Pseudomonas sp.。 考察废气生物反应器填料含水率、填料微生物种群结构、填料营养物质、反 应器进气气量反应器微生物气溶胶逸散的影响。提高填料含水率、喷淋营养物质 都会使出气口逸散的微生物浓度增加。出气口逸散的微生物绝大部分来源于填 料,与填料上微生物数量及种群结构密切相关。增大进气气量,出气口逸散的微 生物浓度逐渐增加。出气口逸散的微生物主要是由于气体的剪切应力,使填料表 面的微生物脱落释放,随气流逸散而出。
英文摘要: Many industrial processes, like wastewater and sludge treatment, waste landfill and petroleum chemical industry will produce a large amount of waste gases, biotechniques have the advantages of efficient, low cost and little secondary pollution in waste gases treatment. There are microbial colonies attached to the packing materials in bioreactors, some of the microorganisms are sheared off from the surface of the support media by the inlet stream and released from the bioreactor, this would result in bioaerosol formation. Therefore, the performance, microbial characteristics and bioaerosol emission of a biofilter for SO2 and xylene removal and a full-scale thermophilic biofilter(FTB) for sludge drying exhaust removal were studied, respectively. The factors affects bioaerosol emission from bioreactor were analyzed. The performance of the biofilter for SO2 and xylene removal and the FTB for sludge drying exhaust removal were studied. For the biofilter, removal rates for both SO2 and xylene were more than 90%. The removal capcities for SO2 and xylene increased with the increasing of SO2 and xylene inlet load. For the FTB, removal rates for SO2, NH3 and VOCs were 97%, 90%, and 93%, respectively. With the inlet loads of SO2, NH3 and VOCs increased, the removal capcities of SO2, NH3 and VOCs showed a growing trend. Removal rates for NH3 and VOCs increased with the improve of packing materials’ water containing rates. Dominant bacterial in the packing materials were sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and xylene-degrading bacteria, such as Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus sp., Paenibacillus sp., Brevibacillus sp. and Acinetobacter sp..The concentration of inlet SO2 and xylene influenced bacterial population in the biofilter packing materials. Clone libraries based on 16S rRNA genes were constructed to observed the temporal variation of bacterial population and dominant bacterial in the FTB packing materials. The compositions of the inlet stream influenced the species, abundance and distribution of the microorganisms in the FTB. Species that have the abilities of desulfuring and denitrifying, e.g., Sphingobacterium sp., Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Thiobacillus sp., Comamonas sp., Diaphorobacter sp., Alcaligenes sp., Brevundimonas sp., Paracoccus solventivorans strain, and Stenotrophomonas sp., were abundant in the FTB. Bacterial population in the FTB packing materials were influenced by water containing rates of the packing materials. During the whole operation period of the biofilter for SO2 and xylene removal, the average concentration of total bacteria, sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and xylene-degrading bacteria detected in the biofilter outlet was 318CFU/m3, 48CFU/m3, and 93CFU/m3, respectively. High bacterial concentration of nearly 4.7×103 CFU/m3 was detected in the FTB outlet. The major bacteria detected in the FTB outlet was Pseudomonas sp.. The effect of water containg rate, bacterial structures and chemical composition of packing materials, and inlet gas flow on the bioaerosol emission from bioreactor were studied. The rise of packing materials’ water containg rate and chemical composition would increase the bioaerosols’ concentration. The concentration of bioaerosol emitted from bioreactor increased with the rise of inlet gas flow. Most of the bioaerosols detected in the bioreactor outlet were sheared off from the surface of the support media by the inlet stream.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/38728
Appears in Collections:水污染控制技术研究室_学位论文

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作者单位: 1.中国科学院生态环境研究中心
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