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题名: 北京市机动车重金属排放通量的估算及影响研究
作者: 游娟1
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2017-06
授予单位: 中国科学院大学
授予地点: 北京
导师: 陈卫平
关键词: 重金属排放,轮胎,刹车片,模型 ; Heavy metal , Emission,Tire, Brake pad ; model
其他题名: Estimating the annual heavy metal emission of vehicles and its affection in Beijing
学位专业: 生态学
中文摘要: 我国多数城市存在土壤重金属污染问题,随着城市的扩张和城市人口的增加,人类活动释放的重金属将在土壤中持续累积。交通排放是城市土壤重金属的重要来源之一,而轮胎及刹车片磨损是交通源的二大主要来源。由于轮胎、刹车片等重金属含量及交通等基础数据的缺乏,以及交通重金属排放估算方法的不确定性,还难以评估交通排放对城市土壤重金属累积的贡献,也是当前科学研究的一个难点。 本研究以北京市为对象,在对轮胎和刹车片重金属含量、汽车使用年限、里程等基础信息调查收集的基础上,分析对比了不同机动车类型和品牌轮胎和刹车片重金属含量特征,建立了重金属年排放通量估算方法,分析交通重金属年排放量年际变化特征,并通过野外调到评估了交通排放对北京市建成区表层土壤重金属的影响,可为区域土壤重金污染风险管理和预警提供科学支撑。主要研究结果如下: (1)通过问卷调查,分析了不同类型汽车使用状况及轮胎和刹车片使用情况,为估算交通重金属排放提供基础数据。根据调查表明米其林、普利司通、固特异三大轮胎巨头占到市场份额的75.8%,博世、德尔福、霍尼韦尔三大刹车片占到市场份额的74.58%。汽车的平均计算里程为23000公里/年,汽车车轮胎的平均使用年限为2年,刹车片平均使用年限为3.6年。 (2)调查分析了不同车型和品牌轮胎和刹车片重金属含量特征。小客车轮胎Cu、Pb、Zn、Cd浓度均值为4.1mg /kg、3.1mg /kg、8259.1 mg /kg、2.6 mg /kg,大客车轮胎重金属Cu、Pb、Zn、Cd均值3.0mg/Kg、3.0mg/Kg、10093.9mg/Kg、2.6mg/Kg,差异不大。小客车刹车片Cu、Pb、Zn、Cd浓度均值为11136.62 mg/Kg、1276.05 mg/Kg、7207.75 mg/Kg、1.52 mg/Kg,大客车刹车片Cu、Pb、Zn、Cd浓度均值为9501 mg/Kg、3223 mg/Kg、5630 mg/Kg、1.62 mg/Kg,小客车刹车片重金属含量较高。国产的米其林、普利司通和固特异的轮胎的Cu、Zn含量大于国产,而且差异达到显著水平。国产米其林、普利司通Pb含量大于进口异达到显著水平,但进口、国产固特异的Pb含量差异不显著。 (3)建立了轮胎和刹车片磨损估算方法。轮胎磨损的胎尘排放量从2002年的0.78106kg,增加到2012年的3.69106kg,10年期间增长了373.10%,年均排放1.98106kg,而且轮胎磨损的胎尘年排放量为2.44.10-5g/cm2。刹车尘排放量从从2002年的1.23105kg,增加到2012年的 4.90105kg,10年期间增长了298.4%,年均排放2.95105kg,而且刹车片磨损的刹车尘排放量为2.44.10-6g/cm2。 (4)构建了交通重金属年排放量估算方法,分析了北京市交通重金属年际变化特征。2002-2012年,Cu、Pb、Cd、Zn四种重金属从从3.44103Kg、0.40103Kg、0.01103Kg、0.95104Kg,增加到10.68103kg、0.83103kg、0.03103kg、1.96104kg,分别增长了210.5%、107.5%、200%、106.3%。 (5)立基于《2015北京交通年报》公告的车流量密集区,采集108个土样,以北京市城区六环内为研究区域,测定不同级别道路、清洁区Cu、Pb、Zn、Cd等4种金属元素含量、对比分析。北京城区所选取样点土壤环境总体处于轻度污染,土样中、Cu、Pb、Zn、Cd元素含量均值分别为30.60、62.34、0.867、和110.50mg/kg,根据地积累指数分析,Pb 污染较为严重,其他元素污染程度处在轻度范围内。重金属的污染程度由强至弱依次为Pb >Zn Cu> Cd。其中, Pd Igeo 平均值为1.51,需要对其进行控制与治理;而Cu、Zn、Cd 元素次之。
英文摘要: Traffic emission is the main source of urban soil heavy metals, and tyre and brake pad wears are the two main sources of traffic resources. Although there are existing studies on heavy metal pollution in Beijing and other domestic cities, most of the research is aimed at a certain place or a particular year with research contents focused on the pollution of regional soil, street dust and crops, but with less researches on the emission of tire and brake pad pollution sources as well as limited comprehensive understanding on the whole area of Beijing and inter-annual variations. Therefore, this thesis analyzes mainly the heavy metal contents, the emission load and the input amount to soil of tire and brake pads, discusses the influence study of traffic emission on the topsoil heavy metals of built up areas in Beijing, and at last puts forward decision-making suggestions. The main results are showing as follows: (1)Basic data such as cars, tires and brake pads are obtained based on the surveys and analysis on questionnaires, investigation on the service life period and mileage of different cars and the market shares of different brands of tires and brake pads are carried out, which have provide the basis for sampling. (2)Investigation and analysis on the heavy metal concentrations of tires and brake pads are carried out. Results show that all the concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd of middle bus tires are 4.1 mg/Kg, 3.1 mg/Kg, 8259.1 mg/Kg and 2.6 mg/Kg g respectively while all the concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd of motor bus tires are 3.0mg/Kg, 3.0 mg/Kg, 10093.9 mg/Kg and 2.6 mg/Kg respectively. All the concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd of middle bus brake pads are 11136.62 mg#Kg, 1276.05 mg/Kg, 7207.75 mg/Kg and 1.52 mg/Kg, while all the concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd of motor bus tires are 9501 mg/Kg 3223 mg/Kg, 5630 mg/Kg and 1.62 mg/Kg. (3)Investigation and analysis on annual emissions of wear particles of tires and brake pads are carried out. Results show that the annual emission of tire wear particles has been increased from0.78106kg in 2002 to 3.69106kg in 2012, with an increasing amount of 373.10% in ten years. The average annual emission of tire dusts is while the amount of input dust caused by pavement wearing by tire is 2.44.10-5g/cm2. The annual emission of brake dust has been increased from 1.23105kg in 2002 to 4.90105kg in 2012, with an increasing amount of 298.4%% in ten years. The average annual emission of brake dusts is 2.15×104 tons while the amount of input dust caused by pavement wearing by brake is 2.44.10-6g/cm2. (4)The inter-annual variation of the annual emission of traffic heavy metals is analyzed. During the year of 2002 to 2012, the four heavy metals of Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd has increased from 3.44103kg,0.40103kg,0.01103kgand0.95104kgto 10.68103kg,0.83103kg,0.03103kgand 1.96104kg, with increased amount of 210.5%,107.5%,200% and 106.3% respectively. (5)108 soil samples are collected form concentration areas of traffic flow as published in 2015 Traffic Annual Report of Beijing, to taking Beijing urban area within the fifth ring as the study area, to measure and conduct a contrastive analysis of the mental element contents of Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb of different grade roads and clean areas. The overall environment of soil samples collected from is moderately polluted, and the mental element contents of Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb are 62.34, 110.50, 30.60 and 0.867 mg/kg respectively. According to the analysis of area accumulative indexes, Pb pollution is relatively serious while other elements are within the scope of mild pollution levels. The pollution degreesof heavy metals from the heaviest to the weakest are Pb >Zn Cu> Cd. Wherein, the average value of Pd Igeo is 1.51 which needing control and management while those of Cu, Zn and Cd take second place.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/38734
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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