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题名: 黄土丘陵区典型人工植被蒸腾特征 及其驱动因素研究
作者: 张涵丹1
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2017-05
授予单位: 中国科学院大学
授予地点: 北京
导师: 陈利顶 ; 卫伟
关键词: 植被类型 ; 液流速率 ; vegetation types ; 气象因子 ; flow rate ; 土壤水分 ; meteorological factors ; 梯田 ; soil water content ; 水量平衡 ; terrace ; water balance
其他题名: The transpiration characteristics and driving factors of typical introduced vegetation in the loess hilly region
学位专业: 生态学
中文摘要: 黄土高原地区自大规模人工植被恢复措施实施以来,水土流失现状得到了有 效改善,但与此同时,出现了不同程度的土壤干燥化和植被功能退化,甚至死亡。 在植被建设的过程中,如何实现植被耗水与土壤储水之间的动态平衡是实现生态 恢复可持续发展的关键。本研究以黄土区典型的人工植被——油松、侧柏、沙棘、 柠条为研究对象,采用热扩散探针法和热平衡法分别对乔木(油松和侧柏)和灌 木(沙棘和柠条)的液流速率进行长期动态监测,并配以 U30土壤水分监测系统 和气象站同步记录土壤水分数据和气象数据,同时定期监测植被的生理生态参数 (树高、胸径/基径、冠幅、叶面积指数、叶水势等)。本文基于长期的监测数据, 分别从液流速率的动态变化规律、液流速率的环境响应、土壤水分动态等方面对 各树种的蒸腾耗水特征进行分析,并且,对研究区广泛实施的坡改梯工程措施进 行了深入研究,探讨工程措施与植被耦合作用下的生态水文效应,定量评估现有 植被恢复措施影响下的水分收支状况,以期为生态恢复的树种选择、植被建设和 管理等提供科学的参考依据。主要结果如下: (1)油松、侧柏、沙棘、柠条的液流速率均呈现规律性的昼夜变化,且具 有较为相似的干旱适应机制。当受到干旱胁迫时,各树种均通过气孔调节降低液 流速率来适应干旱环境,具体表现为:各树种液流速率达到峰值的时间均提前于 叶水势到达最低值的时间。 (2)气象因子对液流速率的影响随着时间尺度的增加而下降,并且影响液 流速率动态变化的主要气象因子具有树种差异性:在昼夜变化尺度上,影响油松 液流速率动态变化的气象因子依次为:太阳辐射>大气温度>水汽压亏缺>相对 湿度>风速;影响侧柏液流速率动态变化的气象因子依次为:太阳辐射>水汽压 亏缺>大气温度>风速>相对湿度;影响沙棘液流速率动态变化的气象因子依次 为:太阳辐射>相对温度>水汽压亏缺>大气温度>风速;影响柠条液流速率动 态变化的气象因子依次为:太阳辐射>大气温度>水汽压亏缺>风速>相对湿度。 在日尺度上,四种植被的液流速率与风速之间均没有明显的相关性,影响油松液 流速率动态变化的气象因子依次为:太阳辐射>大气温度>相对湿度>水汽压亏 缺;影响侧柏液流速率动态变化的气象因子依次为:太阳辐射>水汽压亏缺>相 对湿度>大气温度;影响沙棘液流速率动态变化的气象因子依次为:太阳辐射> 水汽压亏缺>相对湿度>大气温度;影响柠条液流速率动态变化的气象因子依次 为:太阳辐射>大气温度>水汽压亏缺>相对湿度。在旬尺度上,四种植被与各 气象因子均没有明显的相关性。 (3)四种植被的液流速率具有树种差异性:2014至 2016年油松、侧柏、沙 棘、柠条的日耗水量变化范围分别为1.04~1.42 mm•d-1,0.75~0.92 mm•d-1, 0.70~0.79 mm•d-1,0.37~0.84 mm•d-1。生长季内油松的累积耗水量最高,其次为 侧柏、沙棘和柠条。在坡面尺度上,各样地的土壤水分状况均以水分亏缺为主, 且沙棘样地的土壤水分亏缺状况最为严重,自生长季初期至生长季末期土壤水分 衰减比例达 51.3%,其次为油松(22.89%)、侧柏(21.06%)和柠条(6.25%)。 (4)在梯田整地影响下,土壤水分的干旱胁迫状况得到有效改善。2014-2016 年,生长季内,梯田样地的土壤含水量分别比坡面样地高 43.90%、18.27%和 9.80%, 相对可提取水(REW)分别比坡面样地增加了 325%、58.3%和 37.5%。此外,梯 田整地对植被蒸腾耗水具有促进作用。2014-2016年梯田样地的油松日蒸腾量分 别比坡面油松高 9.26%、4.76%和 20.4%,各生长季内的累积耗水量亦相应增加 8.79%、4.54%和 19.31%,更利于进行水汽交换。相比于坡面样地,梯田样地的 油松植株生长状况更好,其树高、胸径、冠幅分别比坡面样地高 1.5%、12.0%和 63.5%,其中两样地的冠幅具有显著性差异(p < 0.05)。 (5)为进一步了解梯田对植被水分利用的影响及其与植被耦合作用下的水 文特征,选取了分别种植有侧柏和油松的两个梯田样地。结果表明:在现有植被 恢复措施影响下,土壤水分的动态变化多以衰减为主,两样地土壤水分在 2015 年和 2016年的衰减比例分别为:-28.4%和-5.17%(侧柏),0.77%和-3.52%(油 松)。生长季内,两样地的蒸腾损失量均小于同期降雨量,其水分损失均以蒸发 损失为主。此外,受种植结构、植被生长状况和植被盖度的影响,侧柏样地的蒸 发损失量高于油松样地,分别为:227.11 mm和 127.24 mm(侧柏),169.48 mm 和 103.54 mm(油松)。
英文摘要: Since the large-scale vegetation restoration been conducted in the Loess Plateau, the situation of soil and water loss has been effectively improved. However, at the same time different degrees of soil desiccation and vegetation function degradation and even death occurred. How to maintain the dynamic balance between vegetation water consumption and soil conservation is the key to realize the sustainable development of ecological restoration. In this study, we chose four typical artificial plant species in this area as the research object, using thermal diffusion probe method and heat balance method to dynamically monitor the flow rate of trees (Pinus tabulaeformis, Platycladus orientalis) and shrubs (Hippophae rhamnoides, Caragana korshinskii), respectively. Soil water content and meteorological data were synchronously monitored by U30 and weather station, respectively. Vegetation parameters, such as tree height, diameter at breast heitht, base diameter, crown area, leaf area index and leaf water potential were also regularly monitored. Based on these long-term monitoring data, different characteristics of transpiration of these plant species were analyzed through the aspect of dynamic characteristics of flow rate, responses of flow rate to the climate, the dynamic variation of soil water content, and so on. Meanwhile, we focused on one of the widely applied engineering measurements, terrace, to explore the ecological hydrology effects under the coupled action of vegetation construction and quantitatively evaluate the water balance conditions under the influences of the existing vegetation restoration measures. The results are expected to provide scientific references on plant species selection, vegetation construction and management. The main results are as follows: (1) The flow rate of P. tabulaeformis, P. orientalis, H. rhamnoides and C. korshinskii varied regularly from day to night and four species had a relatively similar drought adaptation mechanism. When under drought stress, all these species reduced flow rate through stomatal regulations to adapt the drought environment. For particularly, the peak flow rate occurred earier than the minimum leaf water potential. (2) The influences of meteorological factors on the flow rate reduced with the increase of time scale and the main meteorological factors showed species specific. On the diurnal scale, the main meteorological factors to influence the flow rate of P. tabulaeformis, P. orientalis, H. rhamnoides, and C. korshinskii were with the order of: solar radiation > atmosphere temperature > vapor pressure deficit > relative humidity > wind speed, solar radiation > vapor pressure deficit > air temperature > wind speed > relative humidity, solar radiation > relative humidity > vapor pressure deficit > air temperature > wind speed, and solar radiation > air temperature > vapor pressure deficit > wind speed > relative humidity, respectively. On the daily scale, all of the four species showed no obvious correlations between flow rate and wind speed. The main meteorological factors to influence the flow of P. tabulaeformis, P. orientalis, H. rhamnoides, and C. korshinskii were with the order of: solar radiation > air temperature > relative humidity > vapor pressure deficit, solar radiation > vapor pressure deficit > relative humidity > air temperature, solar radiation > vapor pressure deficit > relative humidity > air temperature, and solar radiation > air temperature > vapor pressure deficit > relative humidity. On ten-day scale, all meteorological factors had no obvious influences on the flow rate of all the four species. (3) The water consumption of the four species showed species specific. During the growing seasons of 2014 to 2016, P. tabulaeformis had the highest cumulative water consumption, followed by P. orientalis, H. rhamnoides, and C. korshinskii. The daily water consumption of P. tabulaeformis, P. orientalis, H. rhamnoides, and C. korshinskii were between 1.04~1.42 mm•d-1 , 0.75~0.92 mm•d-1 , 0.70~0.79 mm•d -1 , and 0.37~0.84 , respectively. On the slope scale, soil water conditions of the four species were mm•d-1 all in water deficit. Soil water in the plantations of H. rhamnoides showed the largest declined from the beginning of the growing season to the end, the soil water attenuation ratio reached 51.3%, followed by P. tabulaeformis (22.89%), P. orientalis (21.06%), and C. korshinskii (6.25%). (4) Compared with natural slope, terracing effectively improved the drought stress conditions of soil moisture. During the growing seasons from 2014 to 2016, the soil water content of terrace site were 43.90%, 18.27%, and 9.8% higher than that of the slope site. The relative extract water (REW) correspondently increased by 325%, 58.3%, and 37.5%. Daily transpiration of P. tabulaeformis of terraced site were 9.26%, 4.76%, and 20.4% higher than that of slope site, during the growing seasons from 2014 to 2016 respectively. The cumulative water consumption correspondently increased by 8.79%, 4.54%, and 19.31%. Meanwhile, plants on the terrace site had a better growth status, with higher tree height (1.5%), bigger diameter at breast height (12.0%) and larger crown projected area (63.5%), and the crown projected area showed statistical significance (p < 0.05). (5) In order to further understand the effects of terracing on water budget of different species and the hydrological characteristics of the coupling effects of engineering measurement and vegetation construction, two terraced sites were chosen, with one planted with P. tabulaeformis and the other one planted with P. orientalis. Results showed that during the growing seasons of 2015 and 2016, soil water conditions were mainly in the situation of attenuation, with the ratio of -28.4% and -5.17% (P. orientalis), and 0.77% and -3.52% (P. tabulaeformis). The water loss caused by transpiration of both sites were less than rainfall during the same period. Evaporation was the main component of water loss. Meanwhile, due to the different planting structure, growing status, and vegetation coverage, evaporation of the site planted with P. orientalis was higher than that planted with P. tabulaeformis, with the value of 227.11 mm and 169.48 mm, and 127.24 mm and 103.54 mm, in the growing seasons of 2015 and 2016 respectively.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/38745
Appears in Collections:城市与区域生态国家重点实验室_学位论文

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