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题名: 我国饮用水污染物非致癌及致癌健康风险评价——以砷及亚硝胺为例
作者: 张秋秋1
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2017-05
授予单位: 中国科学院大学
授予地点: 北京
导师: 张昱 ; 安伟
关键词: 饮用水,砷,N-亚硝基二甲胺,健康风险评价,标准 ; drinking water, arsenic, NDMA, health risk assessment, standard
其他题名: Non-carcinogenic and Carcinogenic Health Risk Assessment ofDrinking Water Pollutants in China ——Taking Arsenic andNitrosamines as two examples
学位专业: 环境工程
中文摘要: 水是人类生存发展不可缺少的物质资源之一。然而近年来,水污染问题日 益严重,屡见报道。饮用水中的污染物给人体健康带来的风险得到人们的广泛 关注。因此很有必要从健康风险的角度进行评价,以保证人们的饮水安全。 砷及 N-亚硝基二甲胺(N-nitrosodimethylamine,NDMA)是饮用水中污染 物的两种典型代表,都是强烈的致癌物质。饮水砷对人体造成的最主要的危害 是皮肤癌和皮肤病变(以色脱、色沉、掌跖角化为主要特征)。皮肤病变往往在 高浓度水砷下发生且患病率很高,具有地方性。我国已经出现多个地方性砷中 毒病区,涉及面积广,受害人口众多。很多国家已经开展了饮水砷的皮肤癌风 险评价,而关于皮肤病变方面的风险计算比较缺乏。其中,合理建立饮水砷与 皮肤病变之间的剂量-效应关系是亟待解决的关键问题。 亚硝胺类物质是饮用水重要的消毒副产物之一,NDMA是其中发现最早、 研究最广泛的一种,近年来在饮用水和废水系统中频繁检出,被多个国家列为 法定监测指标。特别是最近清华大学对我国饮用水系统中亚硝胺类消毒副产物 进行的普查,说明了 NDMA 潜在很大的健康风险,但是目前世界上只有少数 国家和地区建立了相关标准,我国尚没有 NDMA的饮用水安全标准。 本研究以饮用水中的砷、N-亚硝基二甲胺作为研究对象,基于我国相关水 质调查数据,以伤残调整寿命年(disability-adjusted life years,DALYs)作为健 康风险评价的指标,计算了这两类污染物造成的疾病负担,以期为我国的饮用 水安全管理提供参考。本研究主要获得以下研究结果: (1)饮水砷的健康风险:皮肤癌部分,根据全国的砷浓度调查数据,利用 已经建立的剂量 -效应曲线,将美国环境保护署( United States Environmental Protection Agency,US EPA)的“四步法”与世界卫生组织( World Health Organization,WHO)的疾病模型结合,计算 DALYs损失。皮肤病变部分,根 据我国典型病区山西省山阴县地方性砷中毒的调查数据,利用分位数回归的方 法建立饮水砷浓度与皮肤病变各临床分度之间的剂量-效应曲线,再计算其疾病 负担。结果显示:我国整体砷浓度水平较低(均值和中位数分别为 1.03μg•L-1 和 0.53μg•L-1 ),皮肤癌的终身癌症发病率为 1.5310-5 ,人均疾病负担为 1.35110-6 人年,略超 WHO的参考水平。山西省山阴县砷浓度水平很高(均值 和中位数分别为 0.15mg•L-1 和 0.13mg•L-1),皮肤癌的终身癌症发病率为 3.96×10 -3,人均疾病负担为 7.003×10 -5人年,而皮肤病变的人均疾病负担为 0.254 人年(分位数=0.5时),远超世界平均水平。皮肤病变的发生情况远比皮肤癌 严重。 (2)饮水中 NDMA的健康风险评价及标准制定:根据近 7年的水质调查 中 NDMA的浓度数据,利用 NDMA致癌斜率因子,计算其造成的肝癌疾病负 担,并从人体健康风险的角度为 NDMA 饮用水标准的制定提供依据。结果显 示:NDMA造成的肝癌发病率中值为 5.69×10-6 ,为 EPA规定可接受水平的 5.69 倍。所导致的肝癌人均 DALYs 损失为 6.27×10-7人年,未超过 WHO 的参考水平。但局部地区 NDMA 浓度较高,从健康风险的角度,结合我国的经济发展及水处理技术水平因素,建议今后将 NDMA的标准设为 6-40 ng•L -1 。
英文摘要: Water is one of the indispensable material resources for human survival and development. However, in recent years, water pollution has become increasingly serious and been frequently reported. Health risks caused by drinking water pollutants have been a worldwide concern. It is necessary to carry out evaluation from the perspective of health risks to ensure drinking water safety. Arsenic and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) are two typical pollutants in drinking water, which are strong carcinogens. Arsenic mainly results in skin cancer and skin lesions (pigmentation and palmoplantar keratosis). Skin lesions often occur in high arsenic concentrations of water and the prevalence is high locally. A number of endemic arsenic poisoning wards have emerged in China. Many countries have developed a health risk assessment of skin cancer because of arsenic, while the risk calculations for skin lesions are still lacking. Reasonable dose-effect relationship between arsenic in drinking water and skin lesions is a key issue. Nitrosamine is one of the important disinfection by-products of drinking water. NDMA is discovered the earliest and most widely studied. It has been frequently detected in drinking water and wastewater system in recent years and has been listed as a statutory monitoring index by several countries. In particular, Tsinghua University has recently conducted a survey of nitrite disinfection by-products in China's drinking water system, which indicated a significant health risk of NDMA, but only a few countries and regions in the world has established the relevant standards. China has no drinking water safety standards about NDMA. In this study, arsenic and NDMA in drinking water are two research objects. Based on the data of water quality survey in China, the burden caused by these two pollutants was calculated and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were used as the index of health risk assessment, which could provide a reference for China's drinking water safety management. The main results of this study are as follows: (1) Health risk assessment of arsenic: The part of skin cancer: according to the national arsenic concentration survey data, the use of established dose-response curve, the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) "four-step" method and World Health Organization (WHO) disease model were combined to calculate DALYs. The part of skin lesions: based on a survey of Shanxi province, the dose-response curve between the arsenic concentration of drinking water and skin lesions was established by using the regression method. The results showed that the overall arsenic concentration was low (mean concentration: 1.03μg•L-1 concentration: 0.53μg•L-1 ). The incidence of skin cancer was 1.53×10 -1 and the per capita disease burden was 1.351×10 -6 person years, slightly over WHO reference level. Shanyin County in Shanxi Province had a higher arsenic concentration level (mean concentration: 0.15mg•L-1 , median concentration: 0.13mg•L ). The incidence of skin cancer was 3.96×10 -3 and the per capita disease burden was 7.003×10-5 person years. While the per capita disease burden of skin lesions was 0.254 person years (quantile = 0.5), far more than the world average level. Thus the seriousness of skin lesions was much worse than skin cancer in Shanyin County. (2) Health risk assessment and safety standards suggestions of NDMA in drinking water: According to the NDMA concentration data of water quality survey in the past 7 years, the NDMA carcinogenic slope factor was used to calculate the burden of liver cancer disease and suggestions of safety standards were made. The results showed that the median incidence of liver cancer caused by NDMA was 5.69×10-6 , 5.69 times the acceptable level of EPA. The per capita DALYs of liver cancer was 6.27×10-7 person-years, below the WHO reference level. However, NDMA concentration was higher in some areas. Considering our health, combined with China's economic development and water treatment technology level, it was suggested that the NDMA standard should be set to 6-40 ng•L-1 in the future.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/38748
Appears in Collections:环境水质学国家重点实验室_学位论文

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作者单位: 1.中国科学院生态环境研究中心

Recommended Citation:
张秋秋. 我国饮用水污染物非致癌及致癌健康风险评价——以砷及亚硝胺为例[D]. 北京. 中国科学院大学. 2017.
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