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题名: 青藏高原南部及西部典型持久性有机污染物分布特征
作者: 周瑞辰1
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2017-05
授予单位: 中国科学院大学
授予地点: 北京
导师: 杨瑞强
关键词: 持久性有机污染物,喜马拉雅山脉,青藏高原西部,印度季风,西风 ; Persistent organic pollutants, the Himalayas, the western Tibetan Plateau, the Indian monsoon, the westerly wind
其他题名: Distribution Patterns of Selected Persistent Organic Pollutants from the Southern and Western Tibetan Plateau
学位专业: 环境工程
中文摘要: 持久性有机污染物(POPs)由于具有半挥发性、难降解性、生物富集性以及 高毒性,被人们越来越多的关注。POPs 的半挥发性与难降解性使得它能够随着 大气长距离迁移而到达全球偏远地区。青藏高原地区平均海拔超过4000 米,人 类活动影响较少,是研究POPs 长距离迁移行为的理想实验室。多环芳烃 (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, PAHs) 和有机氯农药 (Organo-chlorine Pesticides,OCPs) 是两种典型的POPs。PAHs 在青藏高原周边国家有大量的排 放;OCPs 则是《斯德哥尔摩公约》限定的化合物,我国已全面禁止使用,但在 南亚国家还有部分的使用。而青藏高原盛行的印度季风与西风可能将这两种污染 物从周边国家带入到青藏高原地区。位于青藏高原南部的喜马拉雅山脉被认为是 印度季风的一个天然屏障,但已有研究表明污染物能够部分穿过喜马拉雅山脉到 达高原内部,然而污染物在喜马拉雅山脉的具体分布特征与传输过程还不明确, 需要更进一步的研究。青藏高原西部干旱少雨,人烟稀少,POPs 在该地区的分 布特征与影响因素还不明确,有待更多的研究。 本研究通过分析喜马拉雅山脉南麓峡谷通道以及青藏高原西部地区的土壤 与苔藓样品中PAHs 与OCPs 浓度,探讨了POPs 在这两个区域的分布特征以及 在印度季风和西风影响下可能的传输行为。取得的主要研究成果有: 1. 研究分析了青藏高原南部的喜马拉雅山脉3 个峡谷通道区域PAHs 的分 布特征。结果发现通道地区PAHs 浓度高于青藏高原西部和北部地区,亚东通道 与藏东南地区浓度相近。土壤和苔藓中较重质量PAHs 所占比例较高,表明受到 本地源影响。通道PAHs 浓度均随海拔升高而降低,并且较重质量PAHs 有较强 相关性,说明低海拔地区的城镇作为一个PAHs 点源影响了通道PAHs 的分布, 跨境传输而来的PAHs 随通道内自南向北的气流与城镇排放的PAHs 一同向高海 拔地区迁移扩散,其中城镇排放源的贡献随海拔升高而逐渐减少。 2. 研究分析了喜马拉雅山脉南麓樟木和亚东通道OCPs 的分布特征。这2 个通道区域OCPs 浓度与藏东南地区相近,苔藓中浓度较高,DDTs 浓度高于 HCHs。亚东通道OCPs 浓度与海拔显著负相关,说明自印度次大陆跨界传输而 来的OCPs 在通道内逐渐迁移扩散。樟木通道关系不明显,表明樟木通道OCPs 可能经历更长距离传输而来。对不同单体研究发现HCHs 能向高原内部进一步传 输,而DDTs 则大部分沉降在通道内部。3. 分析讨论了青藏高原西部地区PAHs 的分布特征。研究发现青藏高原西部 地区PAHs 浓度较低,与全球其他偏远地区浓度相近。西部地区轻质量PAHs 所 占比例大,表明大气长距离传输贡献较大。分析西部地区污染物分布主要影响因 素时,土壤有机碳,苔藓脂肪以及海拔均不是最主要影响因素,而PAHs 浓度随 经度增加而显著降低,这表明西部地区PAHs 分布主要受到西风的影响和控制。 基于以上研究结果,我们提出对污染物控制的建议。对于PAHs,喜马拉雅 山脉南麓通道地区主要来自于本地污染源,因此应当加强对当地居民燃烧木材等 燃料的控制,改用天然气等清洁能源,并提高汽车用油的质量。对于OCPs,主 要来自于印度次大陆,希望通过环境外交进一步加强相关国家履约国际公约,从 而减少OCPs 对青藏高原地区的污染。
英文摘要: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are receiving more and more attentions, due to its characteristics of semi-volatility, degradation-resistant, bioaccumulation and high toxicity. The abilities of semi-volatility and degradation-resistant allow POPs to migrate over long distances and reach to remote regions. The Tibetan Plateau (TP) is over 4000 meters above sea level on average and less affected by humans, which is an ideal laboratory for the study of POPs long range transport. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Organo-chlorine pesticides (OCPs) are typical POPs. There are large amount of PAH emissions in the surrounding countries of TP. OCPs is prohibited in the “Stockholm Convention” and it has been totally banned in China. However, it is still used in south Asia. The Indian monsoon and westerly wind, which are prevailing in TP, could bring the POPs from surrounding countries to the TP. The Himalayas in the southern TP was once considered as an natural barrier of the Indian monsoon, but some studies have figure out that the pollution could pass through the Himalayas and reach to the TP. However, the behavior of transport is not clearly now, thus we need more study on it. The western TP is dry and sparsely populated, the distribution patterns of POPs in this region is not clearly, and more studies are needed. In this thesis, we analyze the soil and lichen samples both in the valleys of Himalayas and in western TP. Discussing the POPs distribution patterns in these two regions and possible transport behavior that under the influence of Indian monsoon and westerly wind. The main results are as follows: 1. Analysis the distribution patterns of PAHs in the three valleys of the southern Himalayas. The concentration of PAHs in the valley area is higher than that in the northern and western TP, but similar to that in the southeastern TP. High molecular weight PAHs has a high proportion in soil and lichen, indicating that more contribution of local sources. The PAHs concentration of the valley has a trend of decreased with the increase of altitude, especially with the high molecular weight PAHs, indicating that the local sources could affect the PAH distribution of the valley. The PAHs from crossborder transport and town emission could migrate to high altitude area by the airstream which from south to north. And the contribution of local town emission is decreased with the increase of altitude. 2. The distribution patterns of OCPs in Zhangmu and Yadong valleys are analyzed. The concentration of OCPs in the two valleys are similar to that in the southeastern TP. Results show that the concentration of Yadong valley has a negative correlation with the altitude, indicating that OCPs which mainly come from the cross-border transport from south Asia could transport and diffuse in the valley. While there is not a clear correlation in Zhangmu valley, which indicates that OCPs mainly comes from the long distance atmospheric transport. From the research of each component of OCPs, we find that HCHs could further transport to inner part of TP, but most part of DDTs are deposit in the valleys. 3. Discussing the distribution patterns of PAHs in the western TP. The study find that the concentration of PAHs in the western TP is low, which is comparable to that of other remote areas in the world. The light molecular weight PAHs are dominant in western TP, indicating that the PAHs from long range atmospheric transport contributes more, The concentration of PAHs decreases with the longitude increases in the western TP, which suggests that westerly winds significantly control their distribution in western TP. Based on the above findings, we make suggestions for pollutants control. For PAHs, which mainly comes from local sources in valleys of the Himalayas, should be strengthen the control of burning wood and other fuel, and converting to natural gas and other clean energy. The quality of gasoline also needs improvement. For OCPs, which mainly comes from the Indian subcontinent, could reduced by environmental diplomacy and further strengthen the relevant nations comply with international conventions.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/38760
Appears in Collections:环境水质学国家重点实验室_学位论文

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