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题名: 海河流域平原段河流沉积物质量评价及其影响因素研究
作者: 朱晓磊1
学位类别: 博士
答辩日期: 2017-05
授予单位: 中国科学院大学
授予地点: 北京
导师: 单保庆
关键词: 海河流域,沉积物质量评价,沉积物毒性鉴别程序,效应导向毒性分 析,污染源解析 ; Haihe River Basin, Sediment quality assessment, Sediment toxicity identification and evaluation, Effect directed analysis, Pollutant source analysis
其他题名: The Assessment and Influencing Factors on Sediment Quality in the Rivers of the Plain Section in Haihe River Basin
学位专业: 环境工程
中文摘要: 沉积物是水生态系统重要组成部分,也是影响水生态系统安全的重要因素 之一。对大多数持久性污染物,沉积物仅仅是其暂存之地,随着物化条件改变, 将再次释放到上覆水体中,并随食物链进入生态系统,最终威胁人类健康。但 另一方面,对受污染沉积物进行修复的费用又极为庞大,全流域治理条件并不 具备。与水体相比,因其迁移性较差,污染物在沉积物中的分布常呈现“点状” 或“片状”分布,如能精准确定受污染沉积物区域和污染物类别,将有助于开 展生态修复。因此,建立一套沉积物风险筛查评价体系,确定流域内沉积物污 染分布热区,并在此基础上分析其化学组成及污染来源,对选择相应的修复策 略、完善流域水环境治理具有重大意义。 本论文尝试构建了一套多指标权重沉积物质量现状评估、复杂体系致毒因 子识别、目标污染物溯源追踪的方法体系。以海河流域平原段河流为研究对象, 分析了沉积物中主要化学污染物的含量和空间分布,测试了沉积物的生物毒性, 同时调查了海河流域底栖动物种类和分布特征;在参阅文献的基础上,基于证 据权重法构建了多指标河流沉积物质量评价方法,并以此对海河流域平原段河 流沉积物质量进行评估筛查;随之将沉积物的毒性鉴别程序(TIE)和效应导向 毒性分析(EDA)技术联用,甄别了高生态风险区域的致毒因子,最后采用受 体模型对沉积物中主要致毒因子进行了源解析。主要研究内容和结果如下: (1)对海河流域平原段河流开展了现状调查,结果表明该区域沉积物污 染较重,底栖动物生态退化严重。海河流域各水系均受到不同程度的污染,特 别是子牙河流域;主要污染物为氨氮、Cr、Ni、Zn和 PAHs等;利用摇蚊和发 光细菌开展的生物毒性测试结果表明,全流域 50%以上点位沉积物表现出高生 物毒性;底栖动物群落组成单一,优势种以摇蚊、颤蚓、螺等耐污种为主,全 流域 45.5%点位生物多样性较差。 (2)综合化学组分、生物毒性和底栖群落结构指标,构建了适用于河流 系统的沉积物质量综合评价指数(SQI),并评估了海河流域平原区河流沉积物 质量水平。该指数以沉积物质量三元法为基础,分别从化学污染、个体毒性和 底栖生态三个角度表征沉积物的,确定了不同指标的选取标准、评价流程及权 重值,构建模型对沉积物质量分级评价。本评价方法可实现对大流域范围沉积 物质量的初步筛查,发现其高风险“热区”。其优点是为沉积物质量评价提供了 一个通用的框架,在实际应用中,可根据保护对象和保护等级,选取适宜的评 价基准值,从而满足不同评价目的的需要。在海河流域平原段的应用表明,海 河流域平原段表层沉积物质量极差,约 70%上的点位表现出重度以上风险,其 中子牙河中游的邢台段是全流域风险最严重区域。 (3)以摇蚊为模式生物,选择存活率及生物标志物反应为效应终点,将 TIE 和 EDA 技术联用,甄别了海河流域平原段沉积物中主要致毒物质。实验 结果表明海河流域平原段沉积物污染具有高度复杂性,氨氮、重金属和有毒有 机物对沉积物生物毒性均有贡献,且不同流域间略有差异,其中:徒骇马颊河 以氨氮、有毒有机物污染为主;漳卫河与黑龙港运东水系以有毒有机物、重金 属污染为主;大清河与子牙河流域沉积物毒性为氨氮、重金属、有毒有机物复 合污染。对持久性特征污染物识别表明重金属中 Cd、Zn和 Cr的生态风险较高, 有机风险污染物主要为多环芳烃类、芳香族类和胺类化工原料、农药类、抗生 素等。海河流域沉积物的高生态风险和复合污染的特点将会增加河流开展生态 修复的难度。 (4)利用正定矩阵因子分解法( PMF)等受体模型解析了海河平原段典 型污染物(重金属、多环芳烃)的污染来源及其贡献率。明确了海河流域污染 物以人为输入源为主,其中工业生产(钢铁、电镀、电池、皮革)、汽车尾气、 农业生产是重金属的主要来源;煤燃烧、焦化、交通废气、秸秆等生物质焚烧 等是沉积物中 PAHs的主要污染源。 本研究结果表明,海河流域平原段河流沉积物质量较差,污染现状严重, 污染组成复杂,污染来源多样,水生态风险态势严峻,河流水生态修复面临多 重挑战。
英文摘要: As one of the main components of aquatic ecosystems, contaminated sediments can affect the overlying water quality. Sediments, such like a "transfer station", tend to accumulate most persistent pollutants and released them into the overlying water again while the environmental conditions changed. Once the released pollutants flow into the food chain, they will become a threat to human health. Moreover, it is unrealistic to clean up all of the polluted sediments in the whole watershed because of the extremely high remediation cost. For its poor mobility, the distribution areas of contaminated sediments are often present as "dotted" or "zone". Therefore, it is significant to establish a set of sediment quality evaluation system to screen the polluted sediment distribution hot areas and to identify the ecotoxicity chemical composition and pollution sources. The evaluation system will be helpful to select the appropriate restoration strategies and to improve river environment management. This paper attempts to construct a set of sediment management strategy which includes evaluation the sediment quality with multi-index, toxicity identification in complex system and pollutant source analysis. The Haihe River Basin was taken as the study area, and the contents and distribution of major chemical pollutants in sediments were analyzed, while the biological toxicity of sediments was tested. At the same time, the species and distribution characteristics of benthic faunas in Haihe River were investigated. On the basis of the previous literatures, according to the weight of evidence, a multi-index river sediment quality evaluation method was constructed. The sediments qualities in the plains of the Haihe River Basin were screened by the new method. Then, the toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE), and effect directed analysis (EDA) were used to identify the toxic in the high ecological risk area. Finally, the main sources of toxic were analyzed by the receptor model. The main contents and results are as follows: (1) The survey in the Haihe River Basin plains shown that the sediments in most of this area were polluted and the benthic ecology was seriously degraded. The sediments in different water systems were polluted in different degrees. The most serious polluted sites were distributed in the Ziya River Basin. And the main pollutants were ammonia nitrogen, Cr, Ni, Zn and PAHs. More than 50% sediments sites in the whole basin show high biotoxicity, which were tested by using Chironomus dilutus and luminescent bacteria. The benthic fauna community composition was simple, and the dominant species were Chinonomus, Oligochaete, and Mollusca. The biological diversity was only 45.5% in the basin river. (2) The sediment quality index (SQI) was established by integrating chemical pollution, biotoxicity and benthic community assessment. The sediments in the plain rivers in Haihe River Basin were evaluated by this method. Based on the sediment quality triad assessment method, chemical pollution, individual biotoxicity and benthic ecology, were used in the SQI index to rank the sediments quality. The SQI method can initially screen the quality of the sediments in a large watershed and discover the "hot zone" with high ecology risk. The most advantage of this method is to provide a framework for evaluation the sediment quality. The appropriate criteria can be selected according to the protection object and protection level, so as to meet the different evaluation purposes. The evaluation results shown that the pollution of the surface sediments of the Haihe River Basin was serious and more than 70% sample sites shown high ecology risk. The middle reaches of the Ziya River in Xingtai city was the most serious risk region in the whole basin. (3) The TIE and EDA techniques were used to identify the toxic substances in the sediments of Haihe River Basin. The Chinonomus was chose to be used as the model organism; the survival rate and the biomarker reaction were chose as the effect endpoints. The results show that the pollutant composition in the sediments of Haihe River Basin was highly complicated. Ammonia nitrogen, heavy metals and toxic organic were contributed to the biotoxicity of sediments. Among different watersheds, the pollution characteristics were differences. Ammonia, toxic organic chemicals were the main pollution in Tuhaimajia River; toxic organi, heavy metal were the main pollution in Zhangwei River and Heilonggang River; ammonia, heavy metals, and toxic organic chemicals were contributed in Daqing River and Ziya River. The identification of persistent pollutants indicates that heavy metals (e.g. Cd, Zn, Cr) and organic compound (e.g. PAHs, aromatic, amine, pesticides and antibiotics) were the high ecological risk pollutants. The high ecological risk and complex of pollution in the Haihe River Basin will increase the difficulty of ecological restoration. (4) The positive matrix factorization (PMF) and other receptor models were used to analyze the pollution sources and the contributions of heavy metals and PAHs in the Haihe River Plain. It was clear that the pollutants sources in the Haihe River Basin were dominated by human activities input. The industrial production (e.g. iron and steel, electroplating, battery, leather), automobile exhaust and agriculture were the main sources of heavy metals; coal combustion, coking, traffic emissions, straw and other biomass burning were the main sources of PAHs in sediments. The results of this study show that the quality of river sediments in the Haihe River are poor, and the pollution is serious, and the pollutants composition are complicated, the pollution sources are diverse. Therefore, the sediment ecological risk is serious and it is faced multiple challenges in river ecology restoration.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/38764
Appears in Collections:环境水质学国家重点实验室_学位论文

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作者单位: 1.中国科学院生态环境研究中心
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