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Prevalent fecal contamination in drinking water resources and potential health risks in Swat, Pakistan
Khan, Kifayatullah; Lu, Yonglong; Saeed, Mian Abdal; Bilal, Hazrat; Sher, Hassan; Khan, Hizbullah; Ali, Jafar; Wang, Pei; Uwizeyimana, Herman; Baninla, Yvette; Li, Qifeng; Liu, Zhaoyang; Nawab, Javed; Zhou, Yunqiao; Su, Chao; Lian, Ruoyu
2018-10-01
Source PublicationJOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES
ISSN1001-0742
Volume72Pages:1-12
AbstractFecal bacteria contaminate water resources and result in associated waterborne diseases. This study assessed drinking water quality and evaluated their potential health risks in Swat, Pakistan. Ground and surface drinking water were randomly collected from upstream to downstream in the River Swat watershed and analyzed for fecal contamination using fecal indicator bacteria (Escherichia cola) and physiochemical parameters (potential of hydrogen, turbidity, temperature, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solid, color, odor and taste). The physiochemical parameters were within their safe limits except in a few locations, whereas, the fecal contaminations in drinking water resources exceeded the drinking water quality standards of Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency (Pak-EPA), 2008 and World Health Organization (WHO), 2011. Multivariate and univariate analyses revealed that downstream urbanization trend, minimum distance between water sources and pit latrines/sewerage systems, raw sewage deep well injection and amplified urban, pastures and agricultural runoffs having human and animal excreta were the possible sources of contamination. The questionnaire survey revealed that majority of the local people using 10-20 years old drinking water supply schemes at the rate of 73% well supply, 13% hand pump supply, 11% spring supply and 3% river/streams supply, which spreads high prevalence of water borne diseases including hepatitis, intestinal infections and diarrhea, dysentery, cholera, typhoid fever, jaundice and skin diseases in children followed by older and younger adults. (C) 2017 The Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Department城市与区域生态国家重点实验室
KeywordDrinking water Fecal contamination Health risks Pakistan
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/40630
Collection城市与区域生态国家重点实验室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Khan, Kifayatullah,Lu, Yonglong,Saeed, Mian Abdal,et al. Prevalent fecal contamination in drinking water resources and potential health risks in Swat, Pakistan[J]. JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES,2018,72:1-12.
APA Khan, Kifayatullah.,Lu, Yonglong.,Saeed, Mian Abdal.,Bilal, Hazrat.,Sher, Hassan.,...&Lian, Ruoyu.(2018).Prevalent fecal contamination in drinking water resources and potential health risks in Swat, Pakistan.JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES,72,1-12.
MLA Khan, Kifayatullah,et al."Prevalent fecal contamination in drinking water resources and potential health risks in Swat, Pakistan".JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES 72(2018):1-12.
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