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鸿雁( Anser cygnoides)在长江中下游流域的越冬分布研究
Alternative TitleChanging distribution of the wintering Swan Goose (Anser cygnoides) in the middle and lower Yangtze River floodplain
安桉
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor曹垒
2019-06
Degree Grantor中国科学院生态环境研究中心
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name理学博士
Degree Discipline生态学
Keyword湿地, 鸿雁,种群分布,长江中下游,鄱阳湖,水鸟调查,卫星追踪, Maxent, 家域模型, WetlAnds, Swan Goose, Distribution, Middle And Lower Yangtze River Floodplain, Poyang Lake, Waterbirds Field Survey, Satellite Tracking, Maxent, Home Range Model
Abstract

      湿地是我国最为 重要的环境资源 之一 湿地生态系统与人类的生存息息相关,因此对于湿地生态系统的监测与评价显得尤为重要。水禽或称之为水鸟,是湿地特有的高等生物类群, 常作为 评估湿地生态系统健康 状况 的重要指标性物种。 鸿雁是一种大型鸭科水鸟,被列 入 我国二级保护动物 名录 ,全球受胁等级被列为易危, 目前 90% 以上的种群集中在鄱阳湖越冬 。 近 十余 年来,越冬 鸿雁的种群 数量估计 不稳定, 以此 该物种作为 研究对象 通过对其种群数量与分布进行调查 、预测其潜在分布区域以及探明其在主要越冬地的空间利用模式 ,在 物种 保护 及生态系统健康评估 层面上,具有重要意义。

    本研究通过开展 在长江中下游地区,特别是鄱阳湖 区域 的 越冬水鸟调查 和对鸿雁个体 的 卫星追踪 ,阐明越冬鸿雁种群数量及其 分布 变化现状进行 使用 物种分布模型( Maxent 预测越冬鸿雁在长江中下游流域的潜在分布范围;利用物种家域模型( 布朗桥运动模型及核心密度估算法 估算鄱阳湖的越冬鸿雁家域范围及空间利用模式。 最终 阐明鸿雁种群 的 越冬 分布特征以及与 环境变化之间的相关联系 。 为开展生态文明建设 、 实现 区域 生态系统可持续发展提供科学理论依据。

    研究结果表明 ,鸿雁种群数量随年际 存在差异 ,与 2004 2005 年的同期水鸟调查 结果 相比,鸿雁在安徽湖群的种群数量呈现显著下降 趋势( Mann-Whitney U test, p=0.010)),在鄱阳湖的种群数量 变化 不显著 Mann-Whitney U test, p=0.063)。利用 物种分布模型( Maxent 模拟 获得的 鸿雁潜在分布地图显示,鸿雁最主要的潜在越冬分布区域集中在安徽、湖北以及江西省的交界处,特别是长江的沿江流域。除此之外, 湖南省中南部、江西省中部、江苏省中部及浙江北部等地区 也具有支持该物种越冬的潜力。海拔、最干月降雨量、等温性和 10 月的平均植被覆盖度用归一化 植被 指数表征, NDVI)对鸿雁的越冬分布影响最大。 通过 使用家域模型对卫星追踪鸿雁个体的越冬家域 进行 估算, 6 2.96 的鄱阳湖越冬鸿雁个体对保护区的利用率在 3 0 以下,仅有 7 .41 的鸿雁 在越冬期对国家 级 保护区有重度依赖。 从越冬鸿雁个体的家域范围 年际 变化来 看,鸿雁个体的年际间空间利用也有较大变化。

   本研究 结合了 鸟类学 、运动生态学 与湿地生态学的 相关知识,属于 跨界领域,在研究方法和研究内容上具有较高的创新性。鸿雁作为湿地生态系统中的易危物种,以其作为研究对象具有一定的典型性。 尽管通过水鸟调查,对目前鸿雁在长江中下游的种群数量及分布变化有了一定了解,但是今后依然需要坚持开展水鸟调查,以保持水鸟数据记录的持续性,对鸿雁种群数量及越冬分布在时空尺度下进行更准确的趋势预测。在鸿雁种群的数量统计方面,依靠人力的野外调查仍然是首要的调查方法。但是,一些无法通行的区域,例如湖中心的浅滩及沼泽地带仍然会导致调查覆盖度的降低。在未来的野外调查中如何更好的与卫星追踪技术结合,提高调查效率与精确度,在调查方法的改进升级方面具有很广阔的进步空间。本研究通过物种分布模型成功预测了鸿雁的潜在分布区域,在未 来的研究中可以对具有支持鸿雁越冬的潜力区域进行考察,以确定其实际价值。并且在未来更深入的研究中,仍需不断发掘与提升更符合鸿雁生态需求的环境因子以进一步提升模型预测的精度。 迁徙水鸟常依据水位、食物量等环境因子选择合适的栖息场所 。 结合卫星追踪数据 对鸿雁个体 在鄱阳湖的空间利用及家域年际变化 研究对了解保护区对物种保护的效力方面取得了创新性的初步尝试。未来可通过增加样本量、对比鸿雁个体月度活动范围等方式,在鸿雁种群空间利用与环境压力的响应关系方面进行更深入细致的研究。本研究 为生态系统保护及环境健康监测的长效机制提供 了较为 充分的理论支持。

Other Abstract

      Wetlands are one of the most important environmental resources of China. Wetland ecosystem changes highly related to human welfare, it is highly important to build up wetland ecosystem monitoring systems. Waterbirds are the highest species in the wetland ecosystem. They always play as important bio-indicators in wetland ecosystem health assessments. The Swan Goose (Anser cygnoides) belongs to the large Anatidae family and has been listed as a globally vulnerable species. Currently, more than 90% population number winters almost exclusively in China and is mostly concentrated on lakes in the Poyang Lake. The population number of Swan Goose highly fluctuated. It is important to use vulnerable species such as Swan Goose as study species, studying on their abundance and distribution changes, potential area prediction and wintering space usage. The results may contribute to the species protection and ecosystem health monitoring.

    In this study, we report our newly acquired census results from field surveys and compared them with historical data on numbers and distribution changes of wintering Swan Geese in the middle and lower Yangtze River floodplain, in order to analyze the changes in population numbers and distributions. We predicted the potential distribution area of Swan Goose in their wintering area by using species distribution model (Maxent). And we estimated the wintering home range (Brown Bridge Movement Model and Kernel Density Estimation) of each satellite stracking Swan Geese to present their wintering sapcial usage.. All the findings of this study may provide supportive knowledges to ecological sustainable researches.

    The results of this study showed, comparing surveys conducted in 2004-2005 with more recent ones, a reduction in the count number of Swan Geese significantly occurred in the Anhui province (Mann-Whitney U test, p=0.010). And in the Poyang Lake, the abundance decrease was only marginally significant (Mann-Whitney U test, p=0.063). Based on the species distribution model (Maxent), the prediction distribution map showed Swan Geese mainly distributed in the boundary areas of Anhui, Hubei and Jiangxi provinces, especially the Yangtze River area. Modeling results suggest that areas in the middle south of Hunan province, middle of Jiangxi province, middle of Jiangsu province and the north of Zhejiang province also contain medium potential suitability for this species as wintering habitats. Elevation, precipitation of driest month, Isothermality and NDVI in October influenced Swan Goose distribution potential the most. After the home range calculation of the satellite tracking Swan Geese, the Ntiaonal Nature Reserve utility of 62.96% Swan Geese under 30%, and only 7.41% of Swan Geese highly used the National Nature Reserve. Based on the result of annual home range area changes, spatial utility varied hargely of the study sample.

    Studing on waterbirds wintering ecology involving knowledges from ornithology, movement ecology and wetland ecology. It is a transboundary research with innovative study methods. Vulnerable species like Swan Goose has representativeness as objective study species. In this study, although we found valuable results in abundance and distribution changes of wintering Swan Goose, in the future still need deploy annual waterbird survey in the wintering area to mentain the continuity, in order to predict the tendency of population changes preciously. Currently, the primary method for studying the abundance and distribution of species uses field censuses, requiring high numbers of man hours. However, inaccessible areas, such as the marsh and muddy area in the center of a lake, limited the observation coverage during our field survey. In the future, combine with new technology such as satellite tracking may improve the efficiency and accuracy of field survey. We used Maxent model successfully predicted the potential wintering areas of Swan Goose in the middle and lower Yangtze River floodplain, in the future we may survey on those potential sites to test the suitability in the actual habitats. And in the future we will continue to test more environmental factors which highly related to wintering Swan Goose to develop the prediction of the model. Waterbirds always select suitable habitat by water leve land food sources. Thus, study on wintering home range of each satellite tracking bird may provide better understandings on the spatial use in Poyang Lake. The results from this study is a creative step to test the protection efficiency of nature reserve. In the future, following more numbers of statellite tracking bird and comparation between monthly activities, the mechanism between spatial utility and environmental stress will be elucidated. All the founds may provide theoretical supportive to develop a long-term ecosystem protection and environmental health monitoring system.

Pages124
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/42177
Collection城市与区域生态国家重点实验室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
安桉. 鸿雁( Anser cygnoides)在长江中下游流域的越冬分布研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院生态环境研究中心,2019.
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