|Alternative Title||Impact of Coastal Landscape Changes on Ecosystem Services and Coastal Vulnerability Assessment|
|Place of Conferral||北京|
|Keyword||环渤海 海岸带，景观格局，生态系统服务，驱动力 ，海平面上升脆弱性 Bohai Bay, Coastal Zone, Landscape Patterns, Ecosytem Services, Driving Forces, Sea-level Rise, Invest, Coastal Vulnerability, Biophysical Exposure Index (Bei)|
生态系统服务是指生态系统形成的支持和满足人类社会生存和发展的环境条件及效用 包括供给服务、调节服务、文化服务和支持服务。景观格局是指构成景观的生态系统或土地利用 覆被类型的形状、比例及空间配置。 景 观 格局是生态过程的载体，而生态过程中包含许多塑造景观格局的驱动因素，二者相互作用共同驱动着景观格局整体的动态，表现出一定的功能特征，这些功能与人类需求相关联就构成了生态系统服务。 景观格局的变化在区域尺度上主要表现为生态系统或土地利用 覆被状况的改变 ，这种改变会对生态系统结构和功能造成影响 从而驱动着区域生态系统提供生态系统服务和产品能力的改变。 环渤海 是我国重要的经济发展中心， 人类活动作为主导因素导致 环渤海 海岸带生态系统格局发生了重大改变， 进而引起生态系统服务和生态系统脆弱性的变化。本文以 环渤海 海岸带生态系统 为研究对象，以 全国生态环境遥感调查评估数据为基础，分析了 2000-2015 年 环渤海 海岸带生态系统格局变化及驱动力， 环渤海 海岸带生态系统服务功能的空间分布及变化特征，景观格局变化对生态系统服务的影响以及气候变化背景下环渤海 海岸带生态系统脆弱性，主要研 究结果如下：
(1) 2000-2015 年，湿地、农田和城镇 是环渤海 海岸带生态系统的主要生态系统类型，三类生态系统的构成比例约为 8 5%5%，水库 坑塘、旱地以及居住地分别占三类生态系统面积的 9 0% 左右。 1 5 年 间，约 1 8.47km 2 的生态系统类型发生变化，城镇增长了 6 农田和湿地 分别减少了 1 和 2 。城镇的增长主
(2) 环渤海 海岸带景观格局 改变导致生态系统服务发生变化。 生态系统组成和面积的变化导致 洪水调蓄 服务、水源涵养服务分别 下降了 5.68 和 4 土壤保持、 固碳和水质净化服务提高了 1 92% 、 2 和 11.67% 。 2 000 2015 年，生态系统类型间的转化分别造成 9.0×10 4 m 3 洪水调蓄量的增加和 4 9.32 × 10 4 m 3 洪水调蓄量的减少 ，裸地、农田和灌丛向湿地生态系统的转移是导致洪水调蓄量增加的主要原因，相反，湿地向城镇、裸地及农田向城镇的转移是导致洪水调蓄量下降的主要原因。生态系统类型间的转化分别造成了 0 .2 ×10 8 m 3 和 1 .13 ×10 8 m 3水源涵养量的增加和减少，裸地、农田向湿地以及农田向森林的转化是导致水源涵养量增加的主要景观转移方式，而湿地向城镇、裸地和农田以及森林和农田向城 镇的转化是导致 水源涵养量减少的主要景观转移方式； 生态系统类型间的转移分别造成 0 .12 ×10 8 t 土壤保持量的增加和 0 2 8 ×10 8 t 土壤保持量的减少，湿地向裸地、草地和农田的转移是土壤保持量增加的主要景观转移类型，裸地向湿地以及农田、湿地、灌丛和森林转为城镇是导致土壤保持量减少的主要景观转移形式。景观转移分别造成 6 6.28 ×10 4 t 固碳量的增加和 1 9.05 ×10 4 t 固碳量的减少农田向森林和灌丛的转移是导致固碳量增加的主要景观转移方式，森林的转出是导致固碳量减少的主要景观转移形式。生态系统类型间的转移分别造成 2 92.50 t氮输出量的增加和 2 85.46 t 氮输出量的减少，农田和城镇的转入是导致氮输出量增加的主要景观转移形式，农田的转出是导致氮输出 量减少的主要景观转移形式。
Coastal zones are significant ecological boundaries, forming the transition area between terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Coastal ecosystems provide easily accessible goods and services to humankind and play a significant role in coastal economic development. 70% of large Chinese cities are located in coastal zones and coastal development plays a dominant role in the national economy. The long-term sustainable development of communities and the quality of human life closely depend on coastal ecosystems and crucial services the provide. The quality and quantity of ecosystem services are directly affected by coastal land cover/use change. As the most densely populated area, Bohai coastal zones have experienced continuous alteration and transformation over the past decades. These changes have negatively altered ecosystem composition and structure and resulted in the degraded function of ecosystem services. Landscape pattern changes analysis was helpful for understanding the consequences of landscape changes. Landscape matrics are simple quantitative indices that concentrate landscape information and reflect the change characteristics of ecosystem structure and spatial configuration. Driven by endogenous and exogenous factors, the landscape is always in a state of dynamic change. The driving forces analysis may lay a good foundation for the analysis of causual relationship and driving mechanism between factors and changes.
(1) From 2000 to 2015, the wetland ecosystem had the largest area, followed by farmland, urban and forest ecosystem. Reservoir/pond was the dominant landscape type of the wetland ecosystem, dry land was the predominant landscape type of farmland ecosystem, residential land was the dominant urban ecosystem type. The statistics showed that significant changes mainly occurred in urban, farmland, wetland and bare land ecosytems. The trend of landscape changes is characterized by the expansion of urban and the shrinkage of farmland, wetland and bare land. The results of LCI indicated that the largest landscape changes occurred during 2000-2005 and 2010-2015.The analysis of landscape metrics revealed that spatial patterns have changed significantly and the change direction of these ecosystems has been toward increased heterogenitty and fragmentation.
(3) The response of ecosystem services to landscape transformation was analyzed based on GIS and statistics methods. From 2000 to 2015, flood regulation increased by 9.0×104m3 decreased by 49.32×104m3 respectively due to the conversion between ecosystems. The inflow and outflow of wetland ecosystem was the main transformation type affecting flood regulation service. Water retention service increased by 0.2×108m3 and decreased by 1.13×108m3 respectively because of landscape transfer, bare land and farmland converted to wetland, farmland converted to forest were the main conversion type leading to the increase of water retention, the outflow of wetland and farmland converted to urban led to the decrease of water retention. Soil retention increased by 1178.03×104t and decreased by 2784.74×104t because of landscape conversion, the wetland converted to bare land, grassland and farmland were tha main transfer type leading to the increase of soil retention, farmland, wetland and grassland converted to urban were the main transfer type leading to the decrease of soil retention. Carbon sequestration increased by 66.28×104t and decreased by 19.05×104t due to landscape conversion, farmland transferred to forest and shrub were the main transformation type leading to the increase of carbon sequestration, the outflow of forest was the main transfer type leading to the decrease of carbon sequestration. The nitrogen output increased by 292.50t and decreased by 285.64t due to the landscape conversion, the inflow of farmland and urban was the main transformation type leading to the increase of nitrogen output, and the outflow of farmland was the main conversion form leading to the decrease of nitrogen output.
(4) The coastal vulnerability assessment of the Bohai coastal zone is of great importance to the sustainable development of coastal cities. The comprehensive evaluation of coastal vulnerability was conducted based on InVEST. We adopted seven variables to calculated the Biophysical Exposure Index (BEI) in 2716 grids. The results indicated that the coastal vulnerability changed significantly under different sea-level rising (current_SLR, SLR1.2 and SLR2.0) and habitat scenarios (with habitat or without habitat). The proportion of high-risk coastal segemnts was 13.44% under current_SLR by habitat scenario, whereas the proportion increased to 25.11% under current_SLR by without habitat scenario. BEI value of coastal cities under current_SLR by without habitat scenario was higher than that under current_SLR by habitat scenario. The proportion of high-risk coastal segments and BEI value of coastal cities presented similar change trend under SLR1.2 and SLR2.0 scenario, which indicated that habitats play an significant role in protecting the coastal cities and shoreline from erosion and flood risk.
|程敏. 海岸带景观格局变化对生态系统服务的影响及脆弱性评价[D]. 北京. 中国科学院生态环境研究中心,2019.|
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