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生物扰动过程中沉积物重金属的迁移转化机制
何怡
Subtype博士后
Thesis Advisor杨敏 ; 王东升
2019-06
Degree Grantor中国科学院生态环境研究中心
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name理学
Degree Discipline生物学
Keyword生物扰动,重金属,形态,迁移转化 bioturbation, Heavy Metal, Speciation, Migration And Transformation
Abstract

      生物扰动是影响沉积物中重金属迁移转化的重要因素之一。底栖生物的行为影响着沉积物中重金属的赋存形态与分布,进而改变沉积物中重金属的迁移转化过程。同时,环境中出现的污染物会通过产生毒性改变底栖生物生活习性或使其发生应激反应来影响其行为。
      本文研究了老化时间对沉积物中重金属形态分布的影响。结果发现,老化时间对Tl在沉积物中的形态分布影响很小,但对Cd、Cu、Zn与Pb而言,老化时间越长,其酸可提取态与铁锰氧化物结合态比例下降越多,沉积物中这四种重金属将以更稳定的可氧化态与残渣态形式存在。同时,研究了生物扰动对三个不同老化时间沉积物中重金属迁移转化的影响。结果发现,在底栖生物作用下,沉积物的pH值、粒度、结构等发生改变,使得沉积物中的重金属一方面更易以溶解态形式释放至上覆水,另一方面,生物扰动了增加表层沉积物中酸可提取态与铁锰氧化物结合态重金属的含量。
      分别将神经类毒素-鱼腥藻毒素与肝毒素-微囊藻毒素作为外加污染物,研究在两种藻毒素的作用下,颤蚓与羽摇蚊幼虫的生物扰动对沉积物中重金属迁移转化的作用机制。根据上覆水中重金属的溶解态与总量的浓度大小,以及表层沉积物中重金属的形态分布变化,可以看出,微囊藻毒素与鱼腥藻毒素均对颤蚓与羽摇蚊幼虫产生了相应毒性,改变了其行为,鱼腥藻毒素明显较微囊藻毒素产生的作用更明显。颤蚓与羽摇蚊幼虫相比,所产生的应激反应更强烈。

Other Abstract

      Biodisturbance is one of the important factors affecting the migration and transformation of heavy metals in sediments. The behavior of benthic organisms affects the occurrence and distribution of heavy metals in sediments, and thus changes the migration and transformation process of heavy metals in sediments. At the same time, pollutants in the environment can affect the behavior of benthic organisms by producing toxicity and changing their living habits or causing stress reactions.
      The effects of ageing time on the morphology and distribution of heavy metals in sediments were studied. The results showed that the ageing time had little effect on the morphology distribution of Tl in sediments, but for Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb, the longer the ageing time was, the more the ratio of acid extractable state to Fe/Mn oxide state decreased, and the four heavy metals in sediments would exist in more stable oxidizable and residual states. Meanwhile, the effects of bioturbation on the migration and transformation of heavy metals in sediments at three different ageing times were studied. Results showed that with the bioturbation in the sediment, pH of sediment, particle size and structure have changed. Also the heavy metal in sediments, on the one hand, were more likely to be in the form of dissolved to release to overlying water, on the other hand, bioturbation in the increase in the surface sediment acid can be extracted with Fe/Mn oxide states the content of heavy metals.
      Then, using anatoxin-a, a neurotoxin, and microcystin-LR, classified as hepatotoxin, as adnexal pollutants, the mechanism of heavy metals migration and transformation in sediments by bioturbation of Tubificids (Tubifex tubifex) and Chironomid larvae (Chironomus plumosuswas) were studied. According to dissolved and total heavy metals concentrations in the overlying water, pH values and grain size of sediment, as well as the formation distribution of heavy metals in surface sediments, it showed that the microcystin-LR and anatoxin-a produced corresponding toxicity on Tubificids and Chironomid larvae, changed their behavior, and the effect produced by anatoxin-a is significantly than the microcystin-LR. Compared with the Chironomid larva, the stress response of Tubificids was stronger.

Pages79
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/42210
Collection环境水质学国家重点实验室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
何怡. 生物扰动过程中沉积物重金属的迁移转化机制[D]. 北京. 中国科学院生态环境研究中心,2019.
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