RCEES OpenIR  > 环境水质学国家重点实验室
饮用水快速滤池微生态功能解析
Alternative TitleElucidation of microbial ecological function in rapid filters for drinking water treatment
胡万超
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor柏耀辉
2019-06
Degree Grantor中国科学院生态环境研究中心
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name工程硕士
Degree Discipline生物工程
Keyword饮用水,快速滤池,宏基因组,微生态,功能解析 drinking Water, Rapid Filter , Metagenomics, Micro Ecology, Functional Analysis
Abstract

      快速滤池普遍应用于城市饮用水处理中, 其设计目的主要是降低浊度 。 最近的一些研究表明, 在这种贫营养、短水力停留时间和频繁反冲洗的条件下,微生物仍 能够 在滤料表面大量繁殖并参与水质净化。 但这些研究并没有明晰“ 滤池中 的 微生物 是如何参与净化水质的?”这一关键科学问题 。为此,本研究 选取国内由南至北 8 个城市 12 座饮用水处理厂的 快速滤池分别在 9 月和 12 月进行 两次 采样 。 这些滤池使用不同的水源(地下水和地表水)、滤料类型(石英砂和 碳加石英砂双层滤料)以及工艺参数。 研究 对进出水进行15 项理化指标和微生物量检测,对滤料进行 6 项 化学 指标检测和宏基因组测序分析。水质分析结果显示,滤池 在 16 min 内 对 出水 铁、锰、氨氮、磷酸盐和DOC 具有显著去除 效果 P <0.01 )。出水生物量高于进水 证明微生物 能 在滤池中进行繁殖。
      通过对11 座 滤池 39 个宏基因组样品的分析,发现 滤池中的微生物以 细菌为主  98.8%98.8%)。在门水平上,变形菌门在所有滤池中占据主导地位 49.8% 。属水平上, 高丰度属在快滤池中比较一致。导致滤池微生物群落构成和功能差异的主要环境因素 是水质,滤料类型和其它因素为次要因素 。与 物种功能差异强烈相关的水质因子有氨氮、铁、锰和磷。地下水滤池中的含有更多的自养微
生物,主要是 以 氨氮、硫化氢、还原性铁和锰等物质为电子供体。 地表水滤池中微生物以异养为主,且多数相对高丰度物种具有降解异生物质的能力,功能上也表现出更高的异生物质代谢潜能。滤池中存在核心微生物菌群, 其中, 高丰度属 (前 10% 对物质转化贡献大 ,而 亚硝化单胞菌属、不动杆菌属和弧菌属 3 种 关键菌 属通过 改变氮源形态、基因水平转移、成膜和抵御降解有害物质等功能影响着周围的微生物。
      结合水质数据和相应功能基因信息,解析了氨氮去除、锰氧化和磷去除的机制。对于氨氮去除,发现 92% 的氨氮是 以 生物氧化为硝酸盐氮的方式去除。细菌是主要的氨氧化微生物,其中 comammox Nitrospira 占平均 40.6% 的丰度。C omammox Nitrospira 在 地下水滤池和地表水滤池中的主要种类不同,表现出生态位差异。在 快 滤池 中检测出 9 种 锰氧化基因, 说明锰氧化细菌在快滤池中广泛存在 。发挥锰氧化作用的菌主要是 Pedomicrobium sp. 和 Pseudomonas sp.93.7%93.7%)。磷在地下水滤池中的去除主要依靠铁锰氧化 物的吸附作用,地表水滤池对磷的微量去除和微生物的聚磷作用有关。 本 研究 加深了 我们对饮用水快速滤池中微生物及其功能的认知 ,并阐明了微生物在污染物去除中的重要作用 。

Other Abstract

      Rapid filters RFs ) initially designed for retaining suspended particles are widely used in drinking water treatment worldwide. Recent s tu dies have proved that under oligotrophic conditions with short hydraulic retention times and frequent backwashing , thick biofilms can still attach to the surface of filter materials and participate in water purification. However, the roles of microbes in water purification remain inadequately investigated.
      Thus, the RFs of 12 drinking water treatment plants in 8 cities from south to north China was selected and sampled in September and December respectively. These filters work with different water sources ( groundwater and surface water) filter types (quartz sand and carbon with quartz sand) and process parameters.Fifteen physical and chemical indicators and microbial quantity were measured for the influent and effluent water. Six chemical indicators and m etagenomic sequencing were performed for filter material. Water analysis results showed that RFs significantly remove d effluent iron , manganese ammoni um , orthophosphate , and DOC with a maximum hydraulic retention time of 20 min. T he increase in cell count after filtration suggested the slow propagation of microbes inside the filters。

      Bacteria (98.8%) dominate d in RFs by analysis of 39 metagenomic samples from 11 filters. At phylum level, Proteobacteria dominated in all filters (49.8%). High abundance gener a were consistent across different RFs . Metagenomic analysis indicates that water source type (e.g., groundwater vs surface water) rather than filter material (e.g., pure sand vs sand and carbon material) shape s the community composition and function al p rofiles . Fe, Mn, NH 4 ++, and PO43 were strongly relevant to the variation in the microbial community between groundwater filters and surface water filters . G roundwater filter contains more autotrophic microbes, which mainly use ammonia nitrogen, hydrogen su lfide, reducing iron and manganese as electron donors. M icrobes in the surface water filter s are mainly heterotrophic, and the most of relatively high abundance genera are able to degrade xenobiotics . Their function profiles exhibit higher xenobiotics meta bolic potential. The core microbial flora exists in RSF. High abundance genera top 10% contribute to more transformation of substances. The key bacteria Nitrosomonas , Acinetobacter and Vibrio affect the microbial community by changing nitrogen species, g ene level transfer, film formation and resistance or degradation of harmful substances.
      By analyz ing water quality data and the abundance of functional genes, the mechanism of ammonia nitrogen removal, manganese oxidation and phosphorus removal was reveale d . W e estimated that 92% of ammonium was biotransformed into nitrate , with 40.6% of the transformation attributable to comammox Nitrospira C omammox Nitrospira distributed differently between groundwater filters and surface water filters , indicating these species have different niche in different water source conditions . Nine known Mn(II) oxidizing genes were detected in the RFs ,suggesting abundant Mn(II) oxidizing microbes exist in RFs M anganese oxid izing b acteria are mainly Pedomicrobium sp. and Pseudom onas sp. (93.7%). Orthophosphate removal in the groundwater filters was mainly due to the adsorption of formed iron oxide and Mn oxide whereas microbially mediated removal dominated in the surface water filters. This study should advance our fundamental u nderstanding of microbes and their functions in RFs and clarify the critical role of microbes in pollutant removal.

Pages89
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/42213
Collection环境水质学国家重点实验室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
胡万超. 饮用水快速滤池微生态功能解析[D]. 北京. 中国科学院生态环境研究中心,2019.
Files in This Item:
File Name/Size DocType Version Access License
胡万超-饮用水快速砂滤池微生态功能解析.(4394KB)学位论文 开放获取CC BY-NC-SAApplication Full Text
Related Services
Recommend this item
Bookmark
Usage statistics
Export to Endnote
Google Scholar
Similar articles in Google Scholar
[胡万超]'s Articles
Baidu academic
Similar articles in Baidu academic
[胡万超]'s Articles
Bing Scholar
Similar articles in Bing Scholar
[胡万超]'s Articles
Terms of Use
No data!
Social Bookmark/Share
All comments (0)
No comment.
 

Items in the repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.