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受纳水体对污水厂主要污染物排放的微生态响应
Alternative TitleMicroecological Response of Receiving Water Bodies to Main Pollutants Discharged from Wastewater Treatment Plants
霍旸
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor曲久辉,柏耀辉
2018-12
Degree Grantor中国科学院生态环境研究中心
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name工学博士
Degree Discipline环境工程
Keyword受纳 水体 微生物 群落 ,生物膜 落叶 ,生态处理工艺 Receiving Water Body Microbial Communities Biofilm Leaf Litter Ecological Treatment Process
Abstract

      多种化学品之间的共同作用对水生生态系统的影响已经引起了国际上的高度关注 。传统的 单一物质高剂量暴露的毒理学研究方法,难以揭示实际环境中常规污染物和微量有毒污染物共暴露下的水体生态效应。
      本论文采用 分子生物学、生物信息学及生态学 等 手段, 结合野外实际采样和受控模拟实验, 对多种污染物混合 条件下 对受纳河流微生物群落的影响进行研究。通过 对北京市四座大型污水处理厂出水及受纳河流的 野外实际采样 研究 发现污水处理厂出水口受纳河流水 质 季节性、 河流微生物群落的 α 和 β 多样性 差异大于上下游的差异 。 从微生物群落物种组成来看, Betaproteobacteria 是多数污水处理厂出水及受纳河流中相对丰度最大的物种 20% 55% 。功能预测表明 河流及出水中的微生物群落中具有参与降解异生物质功能的菌群。通过多元非参数分析, 识别出氨氮、溶解氧 、医药化合物 等环境因子是影响受纳河流微生物群落的重要环境因子。
      通过人工模拟河道实验,揭示了在营养物质以及医药化合物 存在条件下的河流生物膜组分及生物膜微生物群落组成和功能的变化。发现 医药化合物中的大环内酯类 和 氟喹诺酮类物质 暴露条件下均可对生物膜组分产生显著的抑制效应,进一步发现 诺氟沙星 可能 是对生物膜组分抑制影响明显的关键微量污染物。 部分医药化合物 的投加 影响了生物膜 微生物群落组成差异 和碳源代谢差异。 对 落叶的模拟实验研究发现 ,营养物质的浓度水平决定了 落叶 分解速率的大小。低营养浓度条件下,单独投加了 氟喹诺酮类 及其它类 医药化合物 时,对微生物群落组成的改变比较明显。 磺胺类 和 氟喹诺酮类 对 落叶 细菌的生物量累积有抑制作用。木质素裂解酶在高营养条件下明显对投加 医药化合物 产生了负反馈。
      以广东河源污水处理厂生态处理工艺技术 为研究对象,发现生态处理后污水厂出水的细菌 数量和多样性显著降低 生态处理工艺中的植物根系和污泥可以 截留 污 水中的微生物群落 。排放的出水并没有明显改变受纳河流的微生物群落,从而维持了河流的生态系统结构和功能。

Other Abstract

      The impact of different chemical pollutants and their interactions on aquatic ecosystems has highly raised an international attention. However, traditional approaches based on single pollutant exposure with high concentration is difficult to reveal the impact of primary pollutantsand micropollutants in aquatic ecosystem.
      This study used a series of molecular biology, bioinformatics and ecological approaches to explore the impact of pollutant mixture on riverine microbial communities with integration of field work and microcosm methods. Through the field work investigating effluents of four large wastewater treatment plants in Beijing and their receiving rivers, the study revealed that seasonal differences were more significant than up- and downstream differences in terms of river water quality, alpha- and beta diversity of the microbial communities. Betaproteobacteria class was the most dominant taxa in most effluent and river samples. Functional prediction revealed communities that were involved in xenobiotic degradation in river and effluent samples. Using multi- and non-parameter analyses, the study discovered that nutrients, water physicochemical properties and pharmaceuticals were together shaped composition differences of the microbial communities.
      Through artificial channel microcosm experiment, we found shifts in biofilm microbial communities in the presence of nutrients and pharmaceuticals. Both the exposures of macrolides (MLs)and fluoroquinolones (FQs) significantly inhibited biofilm properties. We further investigated that Norfloxacin was the key compound of biofilm inhibition. Spiking some PPCPs influenced microbial community composition as well as carbon source metabolism. Leaf litter experiments revealed that decomposition rate was dependent on nutrient level. With low nutrient concentration, single exposure of FQs or PPCP in other category changed microbial community’s composition. Sulfonamides (SAs) and FQs inhibited bacterial biomass. Lignin decomposition enzymes activities revealed negative response under PPCP exposure at high nutrient level.
      The study focused on ecological treatment process in Heyuan Wastewater Treatment Plant (Guangdong) and revealed significant decrease of bacteria abundance and diversity in the effluent after ecological treatment process. The rhizosphere and sludge in the ecological treatment process were able to intercept microbial communities of the wastewater. Effluent discharge did not significantly change riverine microbial communities in the receiving river, and thus the structure and function of river ecosystem were maintained.

Pages124
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/42217
Collection环境水质学国家重点实验室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
霍旸. 受纳水体对污水厂主要污染物排放的微生态响应[D]. 北京. 中国科学院生态环境研究中心,2018.
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