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缓流河流悬浮颗粒物特征及对污染物的迁移转化效应
Alternative TitleCharacteristics of suspended particulate matter in slow moving rivers and its migration and transformation effect on pollutants
金鑫
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor单保庆
2019-06
Degree Grantor中国科学院生态环境研究中心
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name工学博士
Degree Discipline环境工程
Keyword:缓流河流,悬浮颗粒物,磷,重金属,河流水环境恢复 slow Moving Water, Suspended Particulate Matter, Phosphorus, Heavy Metals, River Water Environment Restoration
Abstract

      近年来,我国人口数量的增长以及人类活动强度的增加造成水资源的过度消耗及污染物的过量排放,进而引发河流流速趋缓及水质恶化,形成缓流河流。在此影响下,河流上覆水对其内部悬浮颗粒物的风化作用加剧, 颗粒物的物理化学特性及其运动特征必将发生变化。然而,针对缓流河流悬浮颗粒物的特征至今仍缺乏系统性的研究,且其中的悬浮颗粒物对以磷和重金属为主的污染物迁移转化效应至今仍不明确。针对缓流河流中悬 浮颗粒物的特征及对污染物迁移转化过程的影响,本文以海河流域内的典型缓流重污染河流 -子牙河干流为研究对象,并选择同属海河流域的滦河为对 比,揭示缓流河流悬浮颗粒物的微观形貌和运动特征以及其对磷和重金属的迁移转化效应,明确悬浮颗粒物在缓流河流污染物迁移转化过程中所扮演的角色。最后,从悬浮颗粒物的角度出发,提出了基于悬浮颗粒物复 杂响应的河流水环境恢复措施。主要研究内容和结果如下:
(1)缓流河流悬浮颗粒物的微观形貌及运动特征
      子牙河干流天然悬浮颗粒物表面被厚厚的有机裹层所覆盖,形貌复杂多样,而滦河悬浮颗粒物表面棱角分明,呈现无机矿物的特征。子牙河干流中的悬浮颗粒物受化学风化的影响,各采样点悬浮颗粒物比表面积经历了先减小,后增加的变化趋势。与滦河 相比,子牙河干流悬浮颗粒物微观形貌的变化导致其密度减小,沉降更加缓慢,更容易发生悬浮,从而能够引发其对污染物迁移转化的影响。

(2)缓流河流中悬浮颗粒物对磷迁移转化的影响
      旱季子牙河干流悬浮颗粒物具有更强的磷 吸附能力,其 NaOH-P与 OP组份在 TP中的占比较雨季高。子牙河干流旱季、雨季以及滦河旱季的 EPC0值分别为: 0.48256、 0.39375以及 0.03273 mg/L。子牙河干流和滦河悬浮颗粒物在旱季多呈现对磷的“汇”,而子牙河雨季悬浮颗粒物则呈现对磷的“平衡”状态。子牙河干流旱季较雨季以及滦河旱季的 磷缓冲强度高,分别为 26.08、 16.98、 5.62。由于季节条件的差异所导致的水质以及水动力差异是不同季节缓流河流磷缓冲强度差异的驱动因素,而其中水质起到了决定性作用。

(3)缓流河流中悬 浮颗粒物对重金属的 迁移转化效应
      工业来源是本地区悬浮颗粒物表面重金属污染的主要来源,几乎所有采样点重金属污染风险均呈现较高水平,其中 S5、 S12、 S13位点重金属污染风险相对较高, S8位点的风险相对略低。从单个重金属污染风险来看,其中 Cd风险较高,Ni风险较低。上覆水中的化学性质( COD、 NH3-N、 TP、 SRP)是重金 属从水体向悬浮颗粒物中迁移的驱动因素,而悬浮颗粒物的性质能够影响重金属特别是Cu、 Pb、 Zn的迁移。采用悬浮颗粒物进行重金属的来源识别和风险评估对于缓流河流的重金属污染状况评估而言更具现实意义。

(4)基于悬浮颗粒物复杂响应的河流水环境恢复措施

      悬浮颗粒物在面对水环境及水动力多变的条件下会发生复杂的响应,通过引发悬浮颗粒物结构的变化,改变其运动特征及对污染物的吸附解吸附能力,进而引发其对污染物迁移转化效应的改变。 悬浮颗粒物的复杂响应对河流水环境健康而言具有两面性,针对磷的过量输入能够起到缓冲作用从而有利于河流健康,然而对下游水体而言,吸附了磷和重金属的悬浮颗粒物具有较高的释放风险,因而对河流健康不利。基于悬浮颗粒物复杂响应的河流水环境恢复措施应以河流生态修复为主要思想 ,通过河流水质和水动力改善、河流底质修复以及水生动植物群落多样性恢复等措施,有效促进此类河流的恢复。

Other Abstract

        In recent years, the growth of China's population and the increase of human activity intensity cause the excessive consumption of water resources and excessive discharge of pollutants, which further leads to the slow flow of rivers and the deterioration of water quality, forming a slow-flowing river. Under this influence, the weathering effect of the overlying water on the suspended particles in the river is intensified, and the physical and chemical characteristics and movement characteristics of the particles will certainly change. However, there is still a lack of systematic research on the characteristics of suspended particulate matter in slow-flowing rivers, and the migration and transformation effects of suspended particulate matter on pollutants, such as phosphorus and heavy metals, are still unclear. Aiming at the characteristics of suspended particulate matter in river flow and transformation of pollutants migration, this paper selected Ziya River Mainstream, a typical slow flowing and heavy polluted river in northern China, as the research object, and the Luanhe River in Haihe River Basin was selected for comparison to reveal the microscopic morphology and movement characteristics of suspended particulate matter in slow moving river, the transport and transformation effects of suspended particulate matter in slow moving river on phosphorus and heavy metals were investigated, the role of suspended particulates in pollutant transport were clarified. Finally, from the perspective of suspended particulate matter, this paper put forward river water environment restoration measures based on the complex response of suspended particulate matter. The main research contents and results were as follows:
      (1) Microscopic morphology and motion behavior characteristics of suspended particulate matter in slow moving river
      The microstructure of suspended particulates in Ziya River Mainstream was complex, which was wrapped by thick organic coating, and its structure was complex and diverse. However, the surface of suspended particulates from Luanhe River is angular, presenting the characteristics of inorganic minerals. Under the influence of chemical weathering, the specific surface area of suspended particulates in Ziya River Mainstream also experienced a trend of decreasing first and then increasing .Compared with the Luanhe River, the changes in the microstructure of SPM in Ziya RiverMainstream lead to a decrease in its density, a slower sedimentation, and a greater likelihood of suspension, thus triggered its influence on pollutant migration and transformation.
      (2) Effects of suspended particulate matter on phosphorus migration and transformation
       The SPM in Ziya River Mainstream had stronger P adsorption capacity in arid season, and the NaOH-P and OP fractions were higher in arid than in rainy season. EPC0 values in arid and rainy season of Ziya River Mainstream and arid season of Luanhe River were 0.48256, 0.39375 and 0.03273 mg/L, respectively. The SPM in Ziya River Mainstream and Luanhe River acted as sink of phosphorus in the arid season, while in rainy season in Ziya River Mainstream, SPM kept equilibrium with phosphorus. In the dry season, the phosphorus buffering intensity of the Ziya River Mainstream was higher than that of the rainy season and Luanhe river, which is 26.08, 16.98 and 5.62 respectively. The difference of water quality and hydrodynamic conditions caused by seasonal variation was the driving factor of the variation of P buffering intensity in different seasons, and water quality played a decisive role.
      (3) The migration and transformation effects of suspended particulate matter on heavy metals
      Industrial sources were the main sources of heavy metal pollution on the surface of suspended particulate matter in this region, and the risk of heavy metal pollution at almost all sampling points was relatively high, among which the risk of heavy metal pollution at S5, S12 and S13 was relatively high, and the risk at S8 was relatively low. From the perspective of single heavy metal pollution risk, Cd had a high risk and Ni had a low risk. The chemical properties of the overlying water (COD, NH3-N, TP, SRP) were the driving factors for the migration of heavy metals from water to suspended particulates, and the properties of suspended particulates can affect the migration of heavy metals, especially Cu, Pb and Zn. The source identification and risk assessment of heavy metals by suspended particulate matter was of more practical significance for the assessment of heavy metal pollution in slow-flowing rivers.

      (4) River water environment restoration measures based on the complex response of suspended particulate matter
      Under the condition of diverse water environment and hydrodynamic conditions, suspended particulate matter will have complex responses. By changing the structure of suspended particulate matter, its movement characteristics and adsorption and desorption capacity of pollutants will be changed, and then its migration and transformation effect of pollutants will be changed. The complex response of suspended particulates has two sides for the health of river water environment. Excessive input of phosphorus can play a buffer role, which is beneficial to the health of rivers. However, for the downstream water bodies, suspended particulates with adsorbed phosphorus and heavy metals have a high risk of release, which can pose detrimental effect on the health of rivers. River restoration measures based on the complex response of suspended particulate matter should take river ecological restoration as the main idea, and effectively promote the restoration of such rivers through measures such as the improvement of river water quality and hydrodynamic conditions, the restoration of river sediment and the restoration of aquatic flora and fauna community diversity.

Pages150
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/42222
Collection环境水质学国家重点实验室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
金鑫. 缓流河流悬浮颗粒物特征及对污染物的迁移转化效应[D]. 北京. 中国科学院生态环境研究中心,2019.
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