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农村污水处理设施剩余污泥堆肥进程优化及氮素保留研究
Alternative TitleStudy of Composting Process Optimization and Nitrogen Retention of Excess Sludge from Rural S ewage Treatment Facility
马嘉伟
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor郭雪松
2019-06
Degree Grantor中国科学院生态环境研究中心
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name工程硕士
Degree Discipline环境工程
Keyword农村 污水处理设施 剩余污泥 堆肥,高温,功能菌,生物炭 Excess Sludge From Rural Sewage Treatment Facility Compost High Temperature Functional Bacteria, Biochar
Abstract

      随着乡村污水处理工作 的推进 和全面 开展 农村污水设施产生的剩余污泥将会成为一个急需解决的环境问题。 本研究以农村分散性污水处理设施产生的剩余污泥为研究对象,讨论其堆肥的可行性。筛选和鉴定了高温堆肥功能菌,研究了添加生物炭或高温功能菌对堆肥效果的影响,分析了物质转化规律和微生物群落结构演替特征,制备了高温功能菌并开发了相应的设备。
      研究结果表明筛选和分离得到的微生物功能菌 Thermomyces 和 BSTRACTAnoxybacillus geothermalis ,经调查属于嗜热微生物。在堆肥试验中,能够对堆体的物理化学及微生物学特征产生显著影响,促进微生物降解有机物,合成腐殖质。
      生物炭以其独特的结构特征,作为堆肥添加剂使用时,能够为微生物附着提供场所,利于氧气传递,强化微生物生长和增殖,降解有机物,有效促进优势菌的快速增殖使堆体迅速升温。同时,空隙结构还具有保留易挥发逸散组分的功能,减缓了氮素以 NH 3 逸散的形式流失。 与对照组相比, 生物炭 的投加使堆  肥 高温期 保持时间延长 1 倍,达到 10~11d ,有机质降解率提高 10.7 。
      微生物功能菌和生物炭的复合使用,能够综合以上两项优化措施的优势,使堆肥堆体 在快速升温的同时, 可使堆肥 在 21~24d 内 完成,固氮提高16.52~60.59% 。 促进 有机质降解率提高 12.3% 且 明显提高堆肥前期的有机质降解速率 ,提高 8.8% 的纤维素降解率, 同时促进物质腐殖化, 腐殖酸的含量达到133.32 g/kg (对照组仅有 107.88 g/kg 。此外, 微生物群落结构结果显示高温菌Thermomyces 在高温堆肥中发挥了重要作用。
      探索了高温菌和生物炭对堆肥进程优化和氮素保留的机制为农村分散性污水处理 设施 产生的剩余污泥 就地处理和资源化提供技术支持。

Other Abstract

      With the advancement and comprehensive development of rural sewage treatment, the excess sludge generated in the rural sewage facilities becomes an urgent environmental problem. In this study, the excess sludge produced in rural decentralized sewage treatment facilities was taken as the research object, and its compost feasibility was discussed. The high temperature compost functional bacteria were screened and identified . The effects of biochar add ition and high temperature functional bacteria on the sludge compost were studied. The law of material transformation and the succession characteristics of microbial co mmunity structure were analyzed. The high temperature functi onal bacteria were prepared and the corresponding equipment was developed.
      The experimental results showed that the screened and isolated microbial functional bacteria Thermomyces and BSTRACT Anoxybacillus geothermalis are belonged to thermophilic microorganisms. In the compost test, they had a significant impact on the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of the heap. They can promote the microbial degradation of organic matter and the synthesis of humus.
Bio char with unique structural characteristics, when used as a compost additive, can provide a place for microbial adhesion, facilitate oxygen transmission, strengthen microbial growth and proliferation, degrade organic matter, and effectively promote the rap id proliferation of dominant bacteria to rapidly heat up the heap. At the same time, its void structure also can retain the volatile and fugitive components, which slowed the loss of nitrogen in the form of NH 3 Compared with the control test , the addition of biochar made the high temperature period to advance 5 days and prolong by 2 times ,up to 10 11 d, and the organic matter degradation rate increased by 10.7%.
      The combined use of microbial functional bacteria and biochar combined the advantages of their use al one T he compost process can be completed within 21~24 d while the total nitrogen loss is reduc ed by 16.52~60.59%. Besides, the degradation rate of organic matter in increased by 12.3% S ignificantly the degradation rate of organic
matter in the earl y stage of composting had been improve d. The content of humic acid reaches 133.32 g/kg (only 107.88 g/kg in the control group The microbial community structure analysis showed that the thermophilic bacterium Thermomyces played an important role in high temperature composting.
       Based on the above results, t he mechanism of optimization of composting process and nitrogen retention by high temperature bacteria and biochar was explored, a which can provide technical support for in situ treatment and resource utilization of excess sludge generated in rural decentralized sewage treatment facilities.

Pages87
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/42263
Collection水污染控制实验室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
马嘉伟. 农村污水处理设施剩余污泥堆肥进程优化及氮素保留研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院生态环境研究中心,2019.
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