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丛枝菌根真菌影响油蒿适应干旱和生物胁迫的作用机制研究
Alternative TitleEffects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the adaptation of Artermisia ordosica to drought and biotic stress
王中斌
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor曲来叶
2019-06
Degree Grantor中国科学院生态环境研究中心
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name理学硕士
Degree Discipline生态学
Keyword干旱区, 油蒿,丛枝菌根真菌,昆虫 多重关系 arid Area , Artemisia Ordosica , Amf , Insects, Multiple Relationships
Abstract

      油蒿(Artemisia ordosica 是重要的固沙植被, 主要分布在中国以鄂尔多斯高原为中心的温带半干旱沙区,对 干旱 生态系统的稳定发挥着重要作用。然而病害虫一直以来严重影响油蒿 种群的健康发展 导致 油蒿 大面积的枯死,降低了油蒿固沙生态效益。丛枝菌根真菌( arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi AMF 可 通过与植物共生,提高植物对水分、养分等的吸收利用, 促进寄主 植物的生长,增加植物抵抗各种非生物胁迫和病虫害的能力。因此, 本实验从 研究 菌根真菌 植物昆虫多重关系 出发 ,探究 丛枝菌根 缓解油蒿 干旱 和生物胁迫的机理,为 油蒿群落健康发展 提供 新 的 途径。
      本研究采用野外调查和温室控制实验相结合的 方法研究 菌根真菌 植物 昆虫之间的多重关系。 首先 在 油蒿的主要分布区, 选取 年降水量从低到高 ,包括 中卫176.5mm/yr )、灵武 188.3mm/yr )、盐池 283.5mm/yr )、成陵 340.4mm/yr和榆林( 383.4mm/yr )五个研究区 设置 20 个样地 共 100 个样方 进行野外调查取样, 记录各样地 油蒿生长指标、油蒿 菌根共生情况 以及植食性昆虫多度和丰度。 进而以 野外调查数据为基础, 通过 温室控制实验 设置不同的土壤水分( 高水HW 、 低水 LW 、 土壤养分( 高磷 P 、 低磷 P --)和不同的菌种处理 对照 CK 、摩西球囊霉 GM 、 榆林 根系土 YL 和 中卫 根系土 ZW 研究 不同 土壤 环境条件下菌根真菌对油蒿幼苗生长的效应以及如何影响昆虫对植物的取食。
      本论文得出的主要研究结果 与 结论 如下:
      (1 )随着降水量的增加,油蒿个体生物量逐渐减小 而种群密度表现出先增加后减小的趋势 种群结构发生改变。
      (2 )菌根侵染率受到土壤条件的影响。土壤氮素、水分的增加促进了菌根侵染,土壤磷 含量的增加 降低了菌根侵染率。不同菌种间的菌根侵染率存在差异,本研究中接种 YL 混合菌种的处理有最高菌根侵染率。不同菌种对油蒿生长的促生 作用 依赖于土壤环境。在重度养分、轻度水分胁迫下,接种 YL 菌种 的油蒿表现最好;轻度养分和轻度水分条件下,接种 GM 菌种的油蒿表现最佳。
      (3 )重度养分胁迫下菌根 侵染 显著增加了油蒿各部分生物量和氮、磷含量,其中接种混合菌种YL 的处理效应最为显著。
      (4 )施肥处理显著提高了油蒿幼苗的成活率;菌根促进了重度环境胁迫下油蒿幼苗的成活。
      (5 )温室条件下,油蒿主要通过 增大生物量来吸引昆虫的取食 ;在野外条件下,除了植株生物量之外,植物的营养元素水平对昆虫的取食同样起到重要的调控作用。
      (6 )油蒿钻蛀性昆虫及食叶类 昆虫(沙蒿金叶甲)均趋向取食生物量较大、氮含量高的植株,而对碳含量高的植物有趋避作用。菌根真菌通过促进植物生物量的增加,同时增加植株氮含量、减少碳含量促进昆虫对植物的取食。菌根真菌植物 昆虫之间的多重关系受到 降水 、土壤因子及菌种等的影响。

Other Abstract

      Artemisia ordosica is a species that mainly distributed in the temperate and semi arid sand area centered on the Ordos Plateau in China. It is one of the most important sand fixing vegetation in th is region and plays an important role in the stability of arid ecosystem. However, insect pests have been seriously affecting the healthy development of A . ordosica population, and even damged a large area of the population, which reduced the ecological effects o f plant for fix ing sand Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could enhance the plant's absorption and utilization of water,nutrients, etc. by symbiosis with plants, increases plant growth and nutrient levels,and enhance s the ability of plants to resist va rious abiotic stresses and herbivory ,especially on the stressful conditions. Therefore, we would like to peomote the A.ordosica by ino culat ed with different AMF Thus, this study attempted to explore a
new way of herbivore control in A . ordosica community.
We explored the multiple relationships between mycorrhizal fungi plant insects through a combination of field investigation and greenhouse control experiments.Within the main distribution area of A ordosica , Zhong Wei (176.5mm/yr), Ling Wu (18 8. 3mm/yr), Yan C hi (283.5mm/yr) Cheng L ing (340.4mm/yr) and YuLin (383.4 mm/yr ) were selected according the annual precipitation. Within the five sites, 20 plots were set up . We sampled five replaces for each plot for this fi eld survey . The growth character s of plant , the degree of m ycorrhizal symbiosis and the abundance and richness of herbivorous insects w ere recorded. Greenhouse experiment set up different soil water content (HW, soil nutrients (P, P --) and different AMF strains (CK, GM, YL and ZW) to explore the effects of mycorrhizal fungi on the growth of Aordosica seedlings and ins ect number under different environmental conditio ns
The main findings are as follows:
      (1) With the increase of precipitation, the individ ual biomass of A ordosica decreased gradually, while the population density increased first and then decreased , and as a result, the population structure changed.
      (2) Mycorrhizal infection rate ( is affected by soil conditions. The increase of soil nit rogen and water promoted IF, and soil phosphorus reduce d IF . Th ere were differences in IF among different AMF treatments . In this study, the treatment of inoculated YL mixed strains had the hi ghest IF . The growth of different strains on the plant growth depends on the soil environment. Under severe nutrient and low water stress, plant geowth inoculated with YL strains showed the best performance; under mild nutrient and mild wate r stress , plant inoculated with GM strains performed best.
      (3) Under the severe nutrient stress, the mycorrhiza significantly increased plant biomass nitrogen and phosphoru s contents , and the mycorrhzial effect of inoculated mixed strain YL was the most significant.
      (4) Fertilization significantly increased the survival rat e of A . ordosica seedlings after treansplanting ; mycorrhiza promoted the survival of A ordosica seedlings under severe environmental stress.
      (5) Under greenhouse conditions,A ordosica attracts insects mainly through increasing plant bi omass after trans planted i n the field for one year , in addition to plant biomass, the nutrient level of plants also plays an important role in regulating the feeding of insects.
      (6) Aboveground insects ( Chrysolina aeruginosa ) tend to feed plants with relatively large biomass and high nitrogen content, and have a n evasive effect on plants with high carbon content. AMF promote insect feeding on plants by promoting plant biomass increasing nitrogen content and reducing carbon content. The multiple relatio nships between A MF plant insects were affected by percipitation , soil factors and different AMF strains

Pages113
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/42312
Collection城市与区域生态国家重点实验室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王中斌. 丛枝菌根真菌影响油蒿适应干旱和生物胁迫的作用机制研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院生态环境研究中心,2019.
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