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生态文明建设标准化战略研究
Alternative TitleStandardization strategy for ecological civilization construction
杨宁
Subtype博士后
Thesis Advisor欧阳志云
2019-12
Degree Grantor中国科学院生态环境研究中心
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name理学
Degree Discipline环境科学与工程
Keyword生态文明建设, 标准化,发展重点,实施路径,高质量发展 ecological Civilization Construction, Standardization, Priority Tasks, Implementation Roadmap, High-quality Development
Abstract

      本报告通过对比国内外生态文明建设标准化现状,分析了我国生态文明建设标准化存在的问题,结合生态文明建设高质量发展内涵和中央顶层文件对生态文明建设的总体布局,部署了我国需要开展标准化工作的重点领域,并以此为核心展开标准化需求分析,提出生态文明建设标准化战略方向、发展重点和实施路径,通过推动重大标准化工程的实施,促进我国生态文明建设高质量发展。
      从标准体系、标准研制和标准实施三个维度分析了我国生态文明建设标准化存在的问题:标准体系方面,尚未形成以生态安全为主体的标准体系;政府主导发布的标准较多,行业和市场驱动的标 准少;现有标准体系不能覆盖生态文明建设的重要领域;部分标准更新较慢,无法满足生态文明建设快速发展的技术要求。标准研制方面,标准研制的支撑基础较为薄弱,表现在生态文明建设标准化工作顶层指导性文件不够,可供参考文件较少;标准研制队伍有待加强,表现在标准研制人员组成单一,制定的标准不能代表多方利益,体现市场需求;缺乏战略部门对接国际上有影响力的标准化组织,引领生态文明建设标准研制的方向。标准实施方面,标准实施率较低,以环境保护领域的相关标准为例,标准实施率约为8%;标准出台后,权威性不高,以节水领域为例,相关部门 对实施其他部门提出的节水标准积极性不高,甚至漠视相关国家标准。
      围绕高质量发展对生态文明建设的要求,以及中央顶层文件对生态文明建设的总体部署,并结合 2035年联合国可持续发展目标,报告提出了我国需要开展标准化工作的重点领域,并进一步以重点领域为核心开展了标准化需求分析: 资源能源的可持续开发利用 和有效监管 需要 创新性的 技术标准引领 和支撑;国土空间需要以资源环境承载能力和国土空间开发适宜性“双评价”标准为基础进行优化;“两山”转化的实践和实现需要标准推动;生态环境全方位、全要素覆盖监测需要相关标准规范和保障;统 筹山水林田湖草系统保护与恢复对标准提出高要求; 生物多样性严格保护需要构建“预警预防”、“保护”和“应急响应”三位一体的标准体系 ;蓝天、碧水、净土保卫攻坚战需要标准持续推进;绿色生活方式的形成需要标准进行引导和推进;绿色“一带一路”建设需要标准援助和互认推动。
      本报告以“提高资源环境承载力、保障优质生态产品供给、推进人与自然和谐共处”为主线,通过短期( 2025年)和长期( 2035年)的战略部署,结合国家战略文件中对生态文明建设的总体布局,针对标准化重点领域提出发展重点,以此为核心构建生态文明建设新型标准体系, 并通过在不同时间节点( 2025年和 2035年)部署重点任务,开展重大标准化工程,保障国内生态文明建设标准化工作的顺利开展,进一步提升生态文明建设领域标准的国际影响力。同时提出相关建议推动相关目标的实现:构建“国际引领 +区域共享 +企业 /团体推动 +地方试点”相结合的多元化标准体系;通过强化政府监督、建立技术与标准融合发展机制,加强标准实施,推动标准发展;创新多元化资金投入体系;强化与国际和区域标准组织的战略对接。

Other Abstract

      Incorporating the problems in standardization of ecological civilization construction into high-quality development connotation of ecological civilization construction, central government’s overall scheme for ecological civilization construction and UN sustainable development goals, this report came up with the key areas needed to carry out standardization work, analyzed the standardization demands for these areas. Based on the demands, strategic direction, priority task and implementation roadmap were brought up. In addition, carring out major standardization projects is also necessary to promote high-quality development of ecological civilization construction.
      The report analyzed the problems in standardization of ecological civilization construction in terms of standard system, standard development and standard implementation. In consideration of standard system, the standard system with ecological security as the core has not been built; there are lack of industry- and market-driven standards were issued; current standard system cannot cover the key areas of ecological civilization construction; by reason of delayed updation, part of standards in some areas cannot meet the rapid development of technology for ecological civilization construction. In consideration of standard development, less top-level documents on standardization of ecological civilization construction aren’t enough to support the development of related standards; the team to develop standards should be improved, the source of standard developers cannot cover diversified fields, as a result, it is hard for developed standards to satisfy the multi-stakeholder and market needs; there is a lack of strategic sector in ecological civilization construction to connect with the influential standardization organization and to lead the strategic direction. In consideration of standard implementation, the rate of standard implementation is low, take an example of the field of environmental protection, only 8% of developed national standards were employed; low authority of developed standards is another problem existing in standard implementation, take water-saving field as an example, related standards developed by different sectors were not employed within sectors positively, and so were national standards.
      Combining demand of high-quality development, overall scheme for ecological civilization construction from central government with UN sustainable development goals, key areas where standardization are needed and further anaysis of standardization needs for key areas were brought up in this report. Advanced technological standards are in dire need to lead and support sustainable exploration of natural resource and effective supervision during exploration and utilization. “Double evaluation” (Evaluation of carrying capacity of resource and environment, Evaluation of suitability of territorial development) are needed for spatial planning and optimization. Related standards are in dire need for practice and realization of transformation between “Clear Waters and Green Mountains” and “Mountains of Gold and Silver”. Standards related to comprehensive monitoring of ecological and environmental elements are strongly necessary to advance coordinated development of land and maritime. It is necessary to consider the protection and restoration of mountains, waters, forests, farmlands, lakes and grasslands as a whole to develop integrated standards. Standards referring to “warning and precaution”, “conservation”, “emergency response” should be developed seamlessly to support more strict biodiversity conservation. Continuous improvement in standards is needed to prevent and repair air, water and soil pollution. Standards are necessary to guide and propel the formation of green lifestyle. Assistance in standards to developing and least developed countries and mutual recognition of standards among countries are the basis of fulfilling Green “One Belt One Road” construction.
      The present report aims to enhance the carrying capacity of resource and environment, make sure about the supply of quality ecological products, and advance harmonious coexistence between humans and nature via standardization in ecological civilization construction, where short- and long-term strategic plannings on priority tasks, implementation roadmap and standardization projects were made. Also, the following suggestions were come up for the standardization in ecological civilization construction at home and greater influence of standards at abroad: Combining “international leading”, “region sharing”, “market driving” with “pilot standars at the local level” to build diversified standard system. Intensifying government supervision, establishing integrative development mechanism between technology and standards to trengthen the standard implementation and advance the standard improvement. Establishing diversified fund input system. Strengthening the strategy synergy between China and international and regional standardization organization.
 

Pages110
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/42334
Collection城市与区域生态国家重点实验室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
杨宁. 生态文明建设标准化战略研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院生态环境研究中心,2019.
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