RCEES OpenIR  > 城市与区域生态国家重点实验室
硬化地表对土壤微生物群落结构和功能多样性的影响
Alternative TitleEffects of pavements on soil microbial community structure and functional diversity
于伟伟
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor王效科
2019-06
Degree Grantor中国科学院生态环境研究中心
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name理学博士
Degree Discipline生态学
Keyword硬化地表,土壤微生物,群落多样性,非根围,根围 pavements, Soil Microorganism, Community Diversity, Bulk Soil, Rhizosphere
Abstract

      伴随着城市硬化地表的增多和城市绿化需求的增强,硬化地表上的树木种植越来越普遍。硬化地表作为一种新型的人工生境,不但改变了树木生长发育的微气候环境(如气温、水分等),而且改变了树木生长的土壤环境(如容重、水分、养分)。作为土壤环境重要组成部分的土壤微生物,是生态系统物质循环的重要环节,直接影响了植物养分供应和土壤物理化学生物学性质,对环境变化非常敏感。但有关硬化地表对土壤微生物的影响,国内外系统研究报道还很少。本研究原位模拟了透水 硬化地表( Pervious pavement, PP)、不透水硬化地表 Impervious pavement, IPP)和非硬化地表 Non-pavement, NP 3种类型地表,栽种北京典型绿化树木油松( Pinus tabulaeformis)、 白蜡树 Fraxinus chinensis)和元宝枫 Acer truncatum),于栽种后第五年春季、夏季、秋季和冬季取树木非根围(距离树干1.2 m左右)和根围( 20 cm××20 cm树池)表层土( 0-20 cm),采用氯仿熏蒸浸提法、磷脂脂肪酸法( PLFA)和 BIOLOG培养法,分别测定了土壤微生物 量、群落结构和功能多样性,以探 讨不同类型硬化地表对土壤微生物群落结构和功能的影响及其季节变化规律,为科学全面地评价城市绿地土壤生态系统服务功能提供数据支撑。主要研究结果如下:
      (1)硬化地表改变了非根围土壤理化性质。首先 PP和 IPP造成了土壤可溶性碳显著降低,油松树下在四个季节都显著降低,白蜡树下在夏季和秋季显著降低,元宝枫树下在春季和秋季均显著降低。其次, PP和 IPP造成土壤总 氮( N降低,油松树下在夏季和冬季均显著降低,白蜡树下和元宝枫树下在春季显著降低。再次, IPP还造成了元宝枫树下土壤 铵态氮( NH4+-N 在春季显著降低。
       (2)硬化地表改变了根围土壤理化性质。 PP和 IPP造成白蜡树下 pH值在
春季 降低, 秋季显著升高 元宝枫树下 pH值在夏季显著升高。 IPP造成油松和元宝树下土壤 pH值在夏季、秋季和冬季均显著升高,白蜡树下土壤 pH值在 夏季和冬季 均显著升高,使油松土壤有机碳在秋季和冬季显著升高。
      (3)硬化地表改变了非根围 土壤微生物量碳( Microbial Biomass Carbon, MBC 、 土壤微生物量氮( Microbial Biomass Nitrogen, MBN 、 土壤微生物量碳与有机碳比值 MBC/OC 和微生物量氮与全氮比值 MBN/TN 。对于非根围土壤, PP和 IPP均降低土壤 MBC、 MBN、 MBC/OC和 MBN/TN IPP下土壤 MBC、MBN、 MBC/OC和 MBN/TN的降低程度更大。对根围土壤 而言, PP下土壤 MBC、MBN、 MBC/OC和 MBN/TN有降低趋势。
       (4)硬化地表降低了非根围土壤微生物群落结构和功能多样性。硬化地表降低了土壤微生物群落总 磷脂脂肪酸( PLFA 、细菌 bacteria 、真菌 fungi 、放线菌 actinomycetes 、硫酸盐还原菌 sulfate reducting bacteria 、 革兰氏阳性菌( 和 革兰氏阴性菌( G-)),升高土壤微生物环境压力指标 F/B、 G+/G-、cy/pre和 sat/mono的值;硬化地表降低土壤微生物 AWCD、丰富度和多样性指数,使土壤微生物对糖类、氨基酸类、羧酸类、胺类、聚合物和其他混合物的利用降低。硬化地表对非根围土壤微生物结构和功能多样性的不利影响,油松 >白蜡树 >元宝枫, IPP>PP。
      (5)硬化地表改变了根围土壤微生物群落结构和功能多样性。硬化地表提高了油松 树下土壤微生物 AWCD和丰富度以及对六类碳源的利用,却降低了 白蜡树 和元宝枫土壤微生物多样性指数以及对六类碳源的利用。 IPP提高了油松和白蜡树下土壤微生物总 PLFA、细菌、真菌、 G+和 G-,降低了油松树下土壤微生物 G+/G-、 sat/mono和 cy/pre,降低了白蜡树下土壤微生物 G+/G-。 PP降低了油松和元宝枫树下土壤微生物总 PLFA、细菌、真菌、 G+和 G-,升高了油松树下土壤微生物 F/B,升高了元宝枫树下土壤微生物 cy/pre和 sat/mono。
       总之,硬化地表影响了土壤微生物量及结构和功能多样性,并且对非根围土壤的影响更为明显,这种不利影响将可能进一步影响 城市树木生长、绿地养分循环和生态系统服务功能。

Other Abstract

      With the increase of pavement and urban greening demand, it is popular to plant trees on pavements. As a new type of artificial habitat, pavements not only change the microclimate environment (such as temperature, moisture, etc.) of tree growth and development, but also changes the soil environment (such as bulk density, moisture and nutrients) of tree growth. As an important part of soil environment, soil microorganism is an important link of material circulation in the ecosystem, which directly affects plant nutrient supply and soil physical, chemical and biological properties, and is very sensitive to environmental changes. However, there are few reports about the effect of pavements on soil microorganism. In the current study, pervious pavement (PP) and impervious pavement (IPP) were conducted with the reference of non-pavement (NP) to study the response of bulk (1.2 m away from trunk) and rhizosphere (20 cm×20 cm tree pool) soil microorganisms on different pavement types under pine (Pinus tabulaeformis), ash (Fraxinus chinensis) and maple (Acer truncatum). Topsoil (0-20 cm depth) was collected in spring, summer, autumn and winter at the fifth year after planting and analyzed by the well-developed methods Biolog Ecoplate (BIOLOG) and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles for microbial functional and structural diversity, and microbial biomass carbon (Cmic) and nitrogen (Nmic) were examined to explore the effects of different types of pavements on soil microbial community structure and function as well as the seasonal variation rules, so as to provide data support for the scientific and comprehensive evaluation of the soil ecosystem service function of urban green land. The main results are as follows:
       (1) Pavement changed the physical and chemical properties of the bulk soil. Firstly, PP and IPP caused a significant decrease in soil soluble carbon under Pinus tabulaeformis in the four seasons, under the Fraxinus chinensis in the summer and autumn, and under the acer truncatum in the spring and autumn. Secondly, PP and IPP resulted in a decrease in soil total N, which was significantly reduced under Pinus tabulaeformis in summer and winter, and significantly decreased under Fraxinus chinensis trees and Acer truncatum in spring. Thirdly, IPP significantly reduced NH4+-N in the soil under Acer truncatum in spring.
       (2) Pavements changed the physical and chemical properties of the rhizosphere soil. Due to PP and IPP, the pH value decreased in spring and increased significantly in autumn under fraxinus chinensis, and increased significantly in summer under acer truncatum. IPP significantly increased soil pH value under Pinus tabulaeformis and Acer truncatum in summer, autumn and winter, and significantly increased soil pH value under Fraxinus chinensis in summer and winter, and significantly increased soil organic carbon under Pinus tabulaeformis in autumn and winter.
      (3) Pavements changed the soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN), microbial biomass carbon/organic carbon (MBC/OC) and microbial biomass nitrogen/ total nitrogen (MBN/TN). For bulk soil, PP and IPP reduced soil MBC, MBN, MBC/OC and MBN/TN, while IPP reduced soil MBC, MBN, MBC/OC and MBN/TN more. For rhizosphere, soil MBC, MBN, MBC/OC and MBN/TN under PP showed a decreasing trend.
      (4) Pavements decreased the structure and functional diversity of microbial community in bulk soil. Pavements reduced soil microbial community total PLFA, bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, sulfate-reducing bacteria, G+ and G-, and increased the environmental pressure indexes F/B, G+/G-, cy/pre and sat/mono. Pavement reduced soil microbial community AWCD, richness and diversity index, and reduces the utilization of soil microorganisms for carbohydrates, amino acids, carboxylic acids, amines, polymers and other mixtures. Adverse degree of pavements’ effect on microbial structure and functional diversity in bulk soil: Pinus tabulaeformis>Fraxinus chinensis>Acer truncatum, IPP>PP.
        (5) Pavements decreased the structure and functional diversity of microbial community in rhizosphere soil. Pavements increased the AWCD and richness of soil microorganisms under Pinus tabulaeformis and the utilization of six types of carbon sources, but decreased the soil microbial diversity index and the utilization of six types of carbon sources of Fraxinus chinensis and Acer truncatum. IPP increased soil microbial community total PLFA, bacteria, fungi, G+ and G- of Pinus tabulaeformis and Fraxinus chinensis, and decreased soil microbial community G+/G-, sat/mono and cy/pre of Pinus tabulaeformis, and decreased soil microbial community G+/G- of Fraxinus chinensis. PP decreased soil microbial community total PLFA, bacteria, fungi, G+ and G- under Pinus tabulaeformis and Acer truncatum, increased the soil microbial F/B under Pinus tabulaeformis, and increased the soil microbial cy/pre and sat/mono under Acer truncatum.
       Pavements adversely affect soil microbial biomass and soil microbial community structural and functional diversity, especially in bulk soil, and the adverse effect may further affect urban tree growth, green land nutrient cycling and ecosystem services.

Pages153
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/42341
Collection城市与区域生态国家重点实验室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
于伟伟. 硬化地表对土壤微生物群落结构和功能多样性的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院生态环境研究中心,2019.
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