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黄海海洋典型物种中全氟烷基酸的赋存特征及其健康风险
Alternative TitleOccurrence and Health Risk of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Typical Marine Species of Yellow Sea
张安琪
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor吕永龙
2019-06
Degree Grantor中国科学院生态环境研究中心
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name理学硕士
Degree Discipline环境经济与环境管理
Keyword全氟烷基酸,典型物种,赋存, 空间分布, 健康风险 perfluoroalkyl Acids, Typical Species, Occurrence, Spatial Distribution, Health Risk
Abstract

      全氟烷基酸Perfluoroalkyl acids, PFAAs 作为一种新型的持久性有机污染物,由于其独特的物理化学性质,在过去的 60多年中被广泛地应用于生产和生活的各个领域。大量且广泛的使用使得 PFAAs在全世界的环境介质、野生动植物和人体中普遍检出 。 由于其具有持久性、生物富集性和潜在毒性,引起了社会各界的广泛关注。大量研究表明,食物是人体暴露 PFAAs的主要来源,而海产品是食物的重要组成部分,因此研究 PFAAs在海产品中的 赋存 以及 由海产品消费导致的 人体健康风险具有非常重要的意义。为了 揭示 PFAAs在 海洋典型物种中的 赋存特征 和人体通过 食用海产品 暴露 PFAAs的健康风险,本 论 文选取南黄海西部海域作为研究区域,系统研究了 PFAAs在该海域海洋 典型物种 中的 赋存特征 、空间分布与人体健康风险,主要研究 结果 如下:
      PFAAs在黄海海洋典型物种中广泛存在且赋存水平较高。 PFAAs在所有样品中都有检出且浓度水平变化较大。 17种 PFAAs的检出率为 25~100%,其中PFODA的检出率最低, PFOA和 PFTrDA的检出率最高。总 PFAAs ΣPFAAs的浓度范围为 1.10~1711 ng/g干重( dry weight, dw),平均浓度为 84.3 ng/g dw在世界范围内处于较高水平。主要 PFAAs组分为 PFBA、 PFOA和 PFHxA,且三者的总浓度约占∑ ΣPFAAs平均浓度的 70%。
      不同种黄海海洋典型物种中PFAAs的浓度和组成存在显著差异。总的来说,蟹类样品中含有最丰富的 PFAAs,而鱼类、虾类和贝类样品中 Σ7PFAAs的含量水平相差不大,且∑ Σ7PFAAs平均浓度的大小为蟹类( 276 ng/g dw))>虾类( 25.1 ng/g dw))>贝类( 22.2 ng/g dw))>鱼类( 13.0 ng/g dw)。就 PFAAs的组成而言,鱼类和虾类中均以 PFUnDA、 PFTrDA和 PFOS为主要组分,而蟹类和贝类中PFAAs的组成则因物种而异。
       黄海海洋典型物种中PFAAs的含量和组成存在明显的空间差异。在四类海洋生物样品中, 蟹类样品表现出了最为明显的空间差异,北部(日照市)采集的蟹类样品中 PFAAs的浓度远低于南部(连云港市和盐城市)。除蟹类外,虾类样品中PFAAs的空间差异较大,∑ Σ7PFAAs浓度的地区分布为日照市最高,盐城市次之,连云港市最低。不同地区的鱼类和贝类样品中 PFAAs含量的差异不大,对于鱼类样品,日照市∑ Σ7PFAAs的浓度水平与盐城市相当且高于连云港市,而对于贝类样品,∑ Σ7PFAAs的平均浓度从北到南依次降低。
      三个沿海城市的居民通过食用海产品摄入PFAAs的估计每日摄入量( EDI差异不大,连云港市居民摄入的 ∑Σ7PFAAs的剂量最高,盐城市次之,日照市最低。食用不同类型的海产品对 PFAAs摄入量的贡献存在明显差异,其中通过食用蟹类摄入∑ Σ7PFAAs的 EDI最高,而通过食用鱼类、虾类和贝类摄入的∑ Σ7PFAAs的量相差不大。与其他地区相比,本研究区人群通过海产品摄入 PFOA和 PFOS的 EDI处于较高水平。此外,人体健康风险评价的结果显示,日照市、连云港市和盐城市居民都有通过食用海产品暴露于 PFAAs的风险。

Other Abstract

       As one of the emerging persistent organic pollutants, perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been widely used in various fields of production and life in the past 60 years due to their unique physical and chemical properties. The extensive use of PFAAs has made it widely detected in environmental media, wildlife and human beings all over the world. Because of its persistence, bioaccumulation and potential toxicity, it has attracted wide attention from all walks of life. A large number of studies have shown that food is the main source of human exposure to PFAAs, and seafood is an important part of food. Therefore, it is of great significance to study the occurrence of PFAAs in seafood and human health risks caused by seafood consumption. In order to reveal the occurrence characteristics of PFAAs in typical marine species and the health risks of human exposure to PFAAs through seafood consumption, this paper selected the western South Yellow Sea as the research area, and systematically studied the occurrence characteristics, spatial distribution and human health risks of PFAAs in typical marine species in this area. The main results are as follows:
       PFAAs were widespread in the typical marine species of Yellow Sea and had a high concentration level. PFAAs were detected in all samples with concentration levels varying greatly. The detection rates of 17 kinds of PFAAs were in the range of 25~100%, among which PFODA had the lowest detection rate, while PFOA and PFFTrDA had the highest rate. The concentrations of total PFAAs (∑ΣPFAAs) ranged from 1.10 to 1711 ng/g dry weight (dw), with an average concentration of 84.3 ng/g dw, which was at a high level worldwide. The main components of PFAAs were PFBA, PFOA and PFHxA, and the total concentration of the three components accounted for about 70% of the average concentration of ∑ΣPFAAs.
The concentrations and compositions of PFAAs in different typical marine species of Yellow Sea varied significantly. In general, crab samples contained the most abundant PFAAs, while the concentrations of ∑Σ7PFAAs in fish, shrimp and shellfish samples were at the similar level, and the mean concentrations of ∑Σ7PFAAs ranked in the order of crab (276 ng/g dw) > shrimp (25.1 ng/g dw) > shellfish (22.2 ng/g dw) > fish (13.0 ng/g dw). In terms of the compositions of PFAAs, PFUnDA, PFTrDA and PFOS were the main components in fish and shrimp, while the composition profiles of PFAAs in crab and shellfish varied from species to species.
       Obvious spatial differences in PFAAs contents and compositions could be observed among typical marine species of Yellow Sea. Among the four types of marine biological samples, crab samples showed the most obvious spatial difference. The concentrations of PFAAs in crab samples collected in the North (Rizhao City) were much lower than those in the South (Lianyungang City and Yancheng City). Except crab, the spatial difference of PFAAs in shrimp samples was relatively large. The concentrations of ∑Σ7PFAAs were the highest in Rizhao City, followed by Yancheng City and the lowest in Lianyungang City. The concents of PFAAs didn’t vary greatly in fish and shellfish samples from different regions. For fish samples, the concentration levels of ∑Σ7PFAAs in Rizhao City was similar to those in Yancheng City and higher than those in Lianyungang City. While for shellfish samples, the average concentrations of ∑Σ7PFAAs decreased from north to south.
       The estimated daily intakes (EDI) of PFAAs through seafood consumption in three coastal cities were not significantly different. The ∑Σ7PFAAs intake by residents in Lianyungang City was the highest, followed by Yancheng City and the lowest in Rizhao City. The contribution of eating different types of seafood to PFAAs intake varied significantly, among which ∑Σ7PFAAs intake via crabs was the highest, while ∑Σ7PFAAs intakes via fish, shrimp and shellfish didn’t vary largely. Compared to other areas, the EDIs of PFOA and PFOS through seafood consumption in this area were at higher levels. In addition, human health risk assessment showed that residents of Rizhao City, Lianyungang City and Yancheng city all had the risk of exposure to PFAAs through seafood consumption. 

Pages95
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/42343
Collection城市与区域生态国家重点实验室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
张安琪. 黄海海洋典型物种中全氟烷基酸的赋存特征及其健康风险[D]. 北京. 中国科学院生态环境研究中心,2019.
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