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电动汽车充电基础设施的全生命周期环境影响评价研究
Alternative TitleLife Cycle Environmental Assessment of Charging Infrastructure for Electric Vehicles in China
张展
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor杨建新
2019-06
Degree Grantor中国科学院生态环境研究中心
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name理学硕士
Degree Discipline生态学
Keyword充电基础设施,生命周期评价 电动汽车 节能减排 Charging Infrastructure , Life Cycle Assessment , Electric Vehicle , Emission Reduction
Abstract

        人类交通活动是能源消耗与温室气体排放的主要来源之一.交通运输部门已成为我国国家节能减排工作推行的重点行业 。其中, 发展电动汽车等新能源汽车技术 被认为 交通运输部门绿色改革的重要环节。 随着我国电动汽车产业的快速发展, 人们 对于 电动汽车的配套 充电基础设施的需求日益加大。 建设规模化的 电动汽车 充电基础设施将是未来 推动 我国 电动汽车产业发展的重要保障。
        然而,我国电动汽车充电基础设施的建设历程正处于起步阶段,缺乏科学全面的发展规划。作为电动汽车的配套设施,充电基础设施的规划建设应遵循低碳发展的理念,满足交通领域可持续发展的需求。因此,本研究依据产业生态学的理论方法,从生命周期视角对电动汽车充电基础设施进行环境影响评价,以全面地明确各类型充电基础设施的环境影响,甄别具有节能减排潜力的充电设施生命周期阶段,协助充电设施领域的规划制定,引导充电基础设施以及电动汽车产业实现可持续发展。
        首先,本文以电动汽车充电桩为研究对象, 划定充电桩的生命周期系统边界,构建电动汽 车充电桩生命周期评价模型。 结合 RCEES 2014 本土数据库,通过SimaPro 软件 量化 四种主要类型的 充电桩在生命周期内的能源消耗与温室气体排放,对比分析不同 类型 充电桩的环境影响。 结果表明,四类充电桩中 私人充电桩的能源消耗与温室气体排放量最小,公共交流充电桩次之,公共直流充电桩再次之,公共交直流一 体桩的能耗与温室气体排放最大。四类充电桩环境影响的差异主要来自 其在充电技术、材料组成、市场保有量 等方面 的不同。使用阶段对全生命周期的环境影响贡献最大。
        其次,本文提出电动汽车系统的概念,将电动汽车与其对应 的 充电桩视为一个整体。划定电动汽车系统的生命周期系统边界,并量化其全生命周期内的能源消耗与温室气体排放。计算充电桩在电动汽车系统内各项环境影响所占的比例,从而反映充电桩对电动汽车系统总体环境影响的贡献大小。 结果表明,单一充电桩的全生命周期能源消耗均值为 1.36 MJ/kWh ,占电动汽车系统能源消耗 总 值的2.43% 。单一充电桩的全生命周期全球变暖潜值均值为 94.06 g CO 2 e/kWh ,占电动汽车系统全球变暖潜值总 值的 1.89% 。
        然后,本文 进一步分析影响充电桩环境影响变化趋势的三个主要影响因子:国家电力结 构、充电桩类型、及电动汽车与充电桩的相对数量,探讨三个 因子对充电桩环境影响的影响作用。运用情景分析方法 预测我国充电桩在 2020 年至2040 年的环境影响变化,为未来充电桩的建设规划提供依据 。 研究假设未来二十年我国充电基础设施发展将进入 发展中阶段 与 发达阶段 。结果表明,在发展中阶段,至 2030 年充电桩 全球变暖潜值 占电动汽车系统的比例在 1.31~3.28%范围内;至 2040 年 该 比例则在 1.01~6.06% 范围内。而在发达阶段,至 2030 年充电桩 全球变暖潜值 占电动汽车系统的比例在 1.16~2.90% 范围内;至 2040 年 该比例则在 0.89~5.36% 范围内。充电桩未来的环境影响主要受到电力结构、充电桩类型与电动汽车与充电桩相对数量( r c )三种因素的影响。其中,当 r c 呈现下降趋势时,充电桩的环境负荷显著上升。
        最后,依据以上结果, 本文 对研究结果做敏感性分析,并 从节能减排角度对电动汽车充电 基础设施 的建设规划提供政策建议,对充电 基础设施 生产与运营行业的低碳发展提供科学支撑 与 引导。
         本文从生命周期角度对电动汽车充电基础设施的环境影响进行分析,建立了符合我国国情的电动汽车充电基础设施生命周期评价系统模型,探索 了 充电基础设施 的节能减排路径,引导与支撑 了 充电基础设施行业的低碳发展规划,为充电基础设施与电动汽车产业的可持续发展提供 了 科学依据。

Other Abstract

        Human transportation is one of the main contributors of the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Recently, the transportation has been regarded as the focus of China s national emissions reduction, and the electric vehicle technology has been regarded as an important part of the gree n innovation of transportation. With the development of the electric vehicles in China, the requirements of the charging infrastructure have risen fast. The large scale charging infrastructure installation will be the important guarantee of the future deve lopment of the electric vehicles. However, recently the development of the charging infrastructure in China is still in its infancy and lacks scientific plans. Also, the installation of the charging infrastructure should follow the concept of the low carbon development and meet the requirements of the transportation s sustainable development. Therefore, this study presents a n environmental impact analysis of charging infrastructure from the view of the life cycle based on the theory and methodology of the industrial ecology. It aims to comprehensively estimate the environmental impacts of all types of charging infrastructure, to determine the life cycle phase which has emissions reduction potential, to help make future development plans and to guide the sustainable development of both the charging infrastructure and the electric vehicles.
        Firstly, the charger is regarded as the research object, then its life cycle system boundary is determined , and its life cycle assessment model is constructed . The life cycle energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of four main types of the chargers are calculated and compared according to the RCEES 2014 database and SimaPr o software. Results show that among all the four types of chargers, the home charger has the lowest environmental impacts , followed by the public AC and DC charger, and the public mix charger has the highest. The result difference in these four types of ch argers mainly comes from their difference in the charging technologies,material, national uptake, etc. Also, the use phase contributes most to the life cycle total environmental impacts.
        Secondly,an electric vehicle system (EV system) is defined as the c ombination between an electric vehicle and its chargers. The system boundary of the EV system is determined, and its life cycle energy consumption and the greenhouse gas emissions are estimated. The proportions of the chargers in the environmental impacts of the EV
system are calculated to show the contribution of the chargers in total environmental impacts of the electric vehicles. Results show that the energy consumption of single charger is 1.36 MJ/kWh, accounting for 2.43% of the results of the EV system , and the greenhouse gas emissions are 94.06 g CO2 e/kWh, acco unting for 1.89% of those of the EV system 
        Thirdly, three key factors are deeply discussed as the electricity mix, types of chargers, and ratio of vehicle and charger quantities. The cha nges in the environmental impacts of chargers during 2020 2040 are also projected by scenario analysis to guide future installation plans of the chargers. It is assumed that the charger installation will develop into two more stages, i.e., the developing and developed stages. Results show that in the developing stage, the proportion of the greenhouse gas emissions of the chargers to that of the EV system ranges from 1.31 to 3.28% in 2030 and 1.01 to 6.06% in 2040, while, in the developed stage, it ranges from 1.16 to 2.90% in 2030 and 0.89 to 5.36% in 2040. A decrease in the ratio of vehicle and charger quantities ( r c ) will increase environmental.
        Finally,sensitivity analysis is conducted, and policy advice is proposed to the development plans of th e charging infrastructure from t he view of emissions reduction, to support the low carbon development of t he charging infrastructures manufacturing and operation.
        This study conducts a life cycle environmental impact analysis of the charging infrastructure for the electric vehicles. It constructs a life cycle assessment model and explores ways of emissions reduction of China s charging infrastructure. It a offers scientific advice to the sustainable development of both the charging infrastructure and the electric vehicles.

Pages83
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/42357
Collection城市与区域生态国家重点实验室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
张展. 电动汽车充电基础设施的全生命周期环境影响评价研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院生态环境研究中心,2019.
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