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设施蔬菜种植中氮肥施用的环境效应 研究
Alternative TitleStudy on E n vironmental Effect o f Nitrogen Fertilization i n Greenhouse Vegetable Production
赵慧
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor李叙勇
2019-06
Degree Grantor中国科学院生态环境研究中心
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name理学硕士
Degree Discipline生态学
Keyword设施蔬菜 氮肥施用 环境效应 w Hcn s _veg 模型 MEta 分析 g Reenhouse v EgEtable, n Itrogen Fertilizer Application, Environmental Effect , wHcns_veg Model, m Eta Analysis
Abstract

        设施蔬菜生产是我国重要的粮食安全的保障,但其 生产 过程 中过量施用氮肥 导致的氮损失,引起 了 土壤酸化、地下水污染、温室气体排放等 诸多 环境问题。 设施蔬菜生产中 施肥量对土壤氮损失的影响,现有研究多采用田间控制实验的方法开展, 较少在区域尺度或更大尺度上开展研究。本文以我国重要设施蔬菜种植区域山东省寿光市、青州市、临淄区和浙江省温州市苍南县为研究区,通过云模型、 W H C N S_ve g 模拟、 m eta 分 析等方法,旨在研究不同尺度下、不同施氮模式对 设施蔬菜种植过程中 氮损失的影响。希望通过该研究,可以 对设施蔬菜种植业 降低氮损失、实现 可持续发展有理论意义与实践指导意义。
本文主要研究成果如下:
        (1) 山东省临淄区设施蔬菜种植区域近十年来土壤碱解氮平均含量从 2006年 132.98mg /kg 到 2015 年 260.57mg/kg ,增加了 95.9% 。 土壤碱解氮含量显著高于同时间非设施蔬菜地的土壤碱解氮含量,从 2006 年碱解氮含量高出约 29.7%到 2015 年碱解氮含量高出 107.7% 。临淄区设施蔬菜地碱解氮在 200 6 年到 2010年主要处于第四级和第五级,即施用氮肥 肥效不明显 和 无效。
        (2 )不同区域、不同蔬菜种类的管理模式差异明显。 不同管理模式下 设施蔬菜生长过程中土壤含水量、土壤硝态氮含量 差异较大。 青州西红柿大棚氮淋失比例约为 58.3%58.3%,氮素淋失损失 865.1kg N/ha ,气态损失 28.5kg N/ha ,氮 盈余为81.1kg N/ha 。 W H C N S_ve g 模拟结果表明,随着施氮量的增加,氮素淋失损失和气体排放损失都成线性增长趋势,但其对产量的增长的影响逐渐降低。
       (3) 以山东地区设施蔬菜主要种植区临淄、青州、寿光为例 ,收集相应数据,并建立 WHCNS_veg 模型运转所需属性数据的数据库。通过模型模拟不同土壤类型下和管理模式下,秋冬季设施番茄的氮素损失情况。结果表明,秋冬季设施番茄种植的过程中,临淄、青州、寿光区域在农民常规施肥模式下,氮淋失约 15.8×10 3 t ,约占氮肥总体投入的 66. 3%3%,气体排放损失约 0.696×10 3 t ,约占氮肥总体投入的 2.9% 。相比于当地农民的传统施氮量,化肥施用量减少 60%的施氮模式对全区域产量基本没有影响,但减少了32.8% 的氮素淋失和 53.5% 的气体排放损失。
       (4) 通过 69 篇文献中的 11 74 组实验结果进行了 meta 分析,研究了氮肥施用和减少氮肥施用对氮素流失的影响。结果表明,与不施氮肥相比,施用氮肥引起的氮素损失量的增加幅度比的增产幅度要大得多:硝态氮淋失量增加 187.5% 、氧化亚氮排放增加 202.0% 、产量增加 35.7% 和植物氮吸收增加 24.5% 。在产量可持续性方面,推荐施氮量为 302 kg N/ha ;在环境可持续发展方面,推荐施氮量为570 kg N/ha 。基于当前过量施用氮肥的现状,适当减少氮肥施用量可显著降低环境蔬菜成本,如硝态氮淋失( 32.4%32.4%)、氧化亚氮排放量 38.6% 但是对植物氮素吸收和产量的 影响不大。从减小环境影响和保持产量两方面考虑,氮肥施用量减少 20%~40% 较为适宜。

Other Abstract

        Greenhouse vegetable production is an important guarantee of food security in China, but the nitrogen loss caused by excessive application of nitroge n fertilizer in the production process has caused many environmental problems, such as soil acidification,groundwater pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and so on. The effect of fertilizer application on soil nitrogen loss in g reenhouse vegetable product ion is mostly carried out by the method of field control experiment, but less on the regional scale or larger scale. T his paper takes Shouguang City, Qingzhou City, Linzi District in Shandong Province and Cangnan County of Wenzhou City, Zhejiang Province a s the study area.
        The purpose of this study is to study the effects of different nitrogen application models on nitrog en loss under different scales in greenhouse vegetable cultivation. It is hoped that this study can have theoretical and practical signifi cance for reducing nitrogen loss and realizing sustainable development in greenhouse vegetable
The main research results of this paper are as follows:
        (1) The average content of soil available nitrogen in greenhouse vegetable planting area in recent ten y ears was from 132.98mg/kg in 2006 to 260.57 mg / kg in 2015 (an increase of 95.9 From 2006 to 2015, the content of soil available nitrogen in greenhouse vegetable planting area was significantly higher than that in non greenhouse vegetable field at the same time , about 29.7% higher than that in 2006 to 107.7% higher in 2015. From 2006 to 2010, the content of available nitrogen in greenhouse vegetable fields in Linzi District was mainly in the fourth and fifth levels,which means the application of nitrog en fertilizer was ineffective.
        (2) The management models of different regions and di fferent vegetable species are obviously different. There are great differences in soil water content and soil nitrate content in the growth process of greenhouse vegetables under different management modes. The proportion of nitrogen leaching in Qingzhou g reenhouse tomato is about 58.3%, t he nitrogen leaching loss is 865.1kg N / ha, the gaseous loss is 28.5kg N / ha,and the nitrogen surplus was 81.1 kg N/ha. W H C N S_ve g simul ation results shows that with the increase of nitrogen application rate, nitrogen le aching loss and gas emission loss show s a linear increasing trend, but their effect on yield growth gradually decrease.
        (3)Taking Linzi, Qingzhou and Shouguang as examples , the corresponding data were collected and the database of attribute data needed fo r the operation of WHCNS_veg model was established. The model was used to simulate the nitrogen loss of greenhouse tomato in autumn and winter under different soil types an d management models. The results showed that in the process of greenhouse tomato pla nting in autumn and winter, the nitrogen leaching loss in Linzi, Qingzhou and Shouguang area was about 15.8 × 10 3 t, accounting for 66.3% of the total nitrogen fertilizer in put, and the gas emission loss was about 0.696 × 10 3 t. It accounts for about 2.9% of the total nitrogen fertilizer input. Compared with the traditional nitrogen application rate of local farmers, the nitrogen application model with a 60% reduction in chemi cal fertilizer application had no effect on the yield of the whole region, bu t reduced the nitrogen leaching loss by 32.8% and the gas emission loss by 53.5%.
        (4)We conducted a meta analysis using 1174 paired observations from 69 publications on the effec ts of nitrogen fertilizer application and reducing nitrogen fertilizer applic ation on the nitrogen losses in a broad scale. We found that the increase in nitrogen loss is much higher than that in production gain caused by excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer in comparison with non application: nitrate leaching (+187.5%), ni trous oxide emission (+202.0%), yield (+35.7%), and nitrogen uptake (+ We recommend 302 kg N/ha as an optimal nitrogen fertilizer application rate in terms of yield sustain ability and 570kg N/ ha as a warning application rate in terms of environmenta l sustainability. Compared with the excessive nitrogen fertilizer application in current situations, appropriate reduction in nitrogen fertilizer application rate substantially mi tigates the environmental cost, e.g. decreasing nitrate leaching (32.4%) and nitrous oxide emission ( 38.6%), while, it has no significant effect on the nitrogen uptake and yield. Considering current situation, 20% 40% reduction in nitrogen fertilizer app lication rate is appropriate in terms of both environment and yield.
 

Pages107
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/42359
Collection城市与区域生态国家重点实验室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
赵慧. 设施蔬菜种植中氮肥施用的环境效应 研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院生态环境研究中心,2019.
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