RCEES OpenIR  > 城市与区域生态国家重点实验室
城市三维景观格局对地表热环境影响研究
Alternative TitleEffects of the Vertical Structure of Urban Landscape on Land Surface Temperature
郑重
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor周伟奇
2019-06
Degree Grantor中国科学院生态环境研究中心
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name理学博士
Degree Discipline生态学
Keyword城市热岛,地表温度,城市景观,垂直结构,建筑高度 Urban Heat IsLand ( Land Surface Temperature Urban Landscape Vertical Structure Building Height
Abstract

        快速的城市化进程使城市中大量自然地表被不透水面所替代,地表能量平衡随之改变 引发了 城市热岛问题。 其中, 城市 在垂直 方向上迅速扩张,大量 高层建筑 出 现 进一步 改变了城市三维结构,使下垫面的热属性更为复杂。城市中高大建筑可以通过改变 地表辐射和空气流通 从而影响地表热环境, 因此, 探究 城市三维景观格局与地表热环境的关系,并以此为依据优化城市三维空间上的格局配置,提出改善地表热环境的 方法与建议 具有重要的 理论及 现实意义。
本研究以北京市作为研究对象,旨在探讨北京市 三维景观格局对地表热环境的关系 及其 作用机理,以期为缓解城市热岛的城市规划提供理论依据 及 对策建议。本研究基于建筑矢量数据量化了北京 市五环内 三维景观格局,并且分析了其与地表 温度 的关系与影响程度,在此基础上探究了建筑对于地表太阳入射辐射量的影响,试图从机理上解释三维景观格局对 局地表面温度 的 影响,并 基于北京市地表粗糙度格局分析 了北京市潜在通风廊道 方案,为缓解城市尺度热环境提供建议。简要内容与 结论如下:
        (1 )量化北京市五环内三维景观格局并分析其演变特征:发现北京 市 五环内的三维景观格局有着明确的 分布及演变 规律。五环内中心区域建筑密度相对较高,而边缘区域植被覆盖比例较高,建筑高度在五环内由中心到边缘呈现低 高低的 格局。北京 市 的城市扩张在 1949 2004 年以外部扩张为主,新增居民区 的分布由中心城区向边缘转移, 数量逐年上升 从 2005 2009 年开始扩张速度下降 。随时间推移,新增居民区建筑高度逐渐 增加 。城市发展 重心 由西向东呈顺时针方向转移,南部发展速度较慢。
        (2 )探究北京市三维景观格局与地表温度 的 影响: 发现 二维及三维景观格局对地表温度有显著相关性。 总体来看,建筑密度增加对地表温度有促进作用;而植被覆盖比例的增加则对地表温度有 抑制 作用;建筑高度对地表温度的影响较为复杂,日间建筑平均高度越高的地方温度越低 ,建筑高度提升 1 米地表温度约下降 0 .035 0.04℃0.04℃,夜间建筑平均高度 在 2 5 30 m 范围内的地方 地表温度最高,建筑高度较高和较低的地方地表温度偏低。对于北京市 五环内区域,建筑高度对地表温度既有直接影 响,也 可以通过影响区域内建筑密度从而对 对地表温度 产生间接影响。建筑对于地表温度的影响程度 在夏季白天 接近 植被 ,在其他时段超过植被; 同时,建筑的 水平 分布和垂直结构 都对地表温度有重要影响,在冬季日间,建筑平均高度的改变 对地表温度的影响远大于建筑 密度的改变对地表温度的影响 。通过太阳辐射模拟 探究建筑对太阳入射辐射量的影响 发现 建筑高度对太阳入射辐射量影响显著,而建筑密度对太阳入射辐射量没有影响。高层建筑可以降低 1 0% 15% 地表接收到的太阳辐射,结果解释了 在白天平均高度较高区域 内地表温度较低的原因。
        (3 )基于建筑 高 度及 空间 分布 情况 得到北京市五环内地表粗糙度格局,探究北京市五环内的地表通风情况 。 北京市五环内地表粗糙度分布格局和建筑高度分布格局接近,由中心到边缘呈现低 高 低的趋势 并且二环内中心城区不存在与外界联通的 通 风 廊 道,导致中心城区地表热环境状况较差。研究结合五环内土地利用状况和地表粗糙度格局,在盛行风风向(西北 东南)上构建出 3 条潜在主要通风廊道和 5 条潜在次级通风廊道。
 

Other Abstract

        Nature landscapes were massively replaced by impervious surface during the growing urbanization process. It changed the surface energy balance and led to the urban heat island phenomenon. In the process of urbanization urban landscapes are not only develop in horizontal but also have a rapid expansion in vertical direction. The emergence of buildings has further changed the urban structure making the thermal properties of underlying surface more complex. High rise buildings in urban area affect income of shortwave solar radiation and the loss of longwave radiation on surface. They also have a certain impact on air flow in urban area. Therefore it is of great significance to analyze the relationship between the urban vertical structure and the surface thermal environment. The results can help urban planner to optimize the layout of the urban structure to improve the surface thermal environment.
This study chose Beijing as study area aimed to find the relationship between urban vertical structure and surface thermal environment and to explain the mechanism. Based on the building footprint data within the 5th ring road of Beijing this study quantified the three dimensional (in both horizontal and vertical space) landscape pattern and analyzed the relationship between three dimensional landscape and surface thermal environment and then explored the impact of vertical structure on land surface temperature. Furthermore we explored the impact of buildings on the solar radiation absorbed by surface tried to explain the mechanism of how urban vertical structure effect on the surface thermal environment. At last we planned the potential ventilation corridors in Beijing as suggestion for urban planner. The conclusions are as follows:
        (1) This study quantified the three dimensional landscape pattern within the 5th ring road of Beijing and analyzed the expansion trend. The results showed that building density is higher in the central area of Beijing while vegetation coverage higher in the marginal area between the forth ring road and the fifth ring road of Beijing. Building height presents a low high low pattern from the center to the edge. Urban expansion of Beijing was dominated by external expansion from 1949 to 2004 the number of new built residential areas increased year by year. During the period of 2005 2009 the expansion rate began to decline and more residential neighborhoods were built within forth ring road of Beijing. The direction of urban development shifts clockwise from west to east while the south part of the area had a slow development.
        (2) This study explored the relationship between the three dimensional landscape pattern and land surface temperature in Beijing. Three dimensional landscape pattern have significant correlation with land surface temperature. The increase of building density promotes the surface temperature while the increase of vegetation coverage ratio reduces the surface temperature. The relationship between mean building height and land surface temperature is more complex. During daytime mean building height has a negative effect on land surface temperature at night the area with 25 30 mean building height tend to have a higher land surface temperature and both less and more mean building height will reduce land surface temperature. For the area within the fifth ring road of Beijing mean building height has both direct and indirect effects on surface temperature. The effect of buildings on surface temperature is similar as vegetation in summer daytime but in summer night and winter the effect of buildings on surface temperature is much greater than vegetation. Both vertical and horizontal structure have important impact on the surface temperature in urban area. In winter the growth of building height has a far greater impact on the land surface temperature than building density. The simulation of solar radiation shows that the building height has a significant effect on the solar incident radiation while the building density has no effect on the solar incident radiation. High rise buildings can effectively reduce the solar incident radiation absorbed by the ground. The results explain the reasons for the lower land surface temperature in high rise residential neighborhoods.
        (3) Based on the building footprint data of Beijing the roughness length pattern within the fifth ring road of Beijing is obtained. The surface roughness distribution pattern is similar as the mean building height map within fifth ring road of Beijing showing a low high low trend from the center to the edge. Moreover there is no ventilation corridors connect central area within the second ring road of Beijing and outside area with cold clean air which leads to a hotter surface thermal environment. for the reason three potential main ventilation corridors and five potential secondary ventilation corridors were constructed on the prevailing wind direction (northwest southeast) based on land use data and roughness length pattern within the fifth ring road of Beijing.

Pages127
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/42361
Collection城市与区域生态国家重点实验室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
郑重. 城市三维景观格局对地表热环境影响研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院生态环境研究中心,2019.
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