RCEES OpenIR  > 城市与区域生态国家重点实验室
中国城市化速度及城市资源环境效应的地区差异研究
Alternative TitleStudy on regional differences in urbanization speed and effects of urban resource and environment in China
杨晓娇
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor王效科
2018-12
Degree Grantor中国科学院生态环境研究中心
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name理学硕士
Degree Discipline生态学
Keyword城市化速度 Resource Consumption Pollution Emission Urban Green Space Construction Level Regional Differences 资源消耗 污染排放 绿地建设水平 地区差异 urbanization Speed
Abstract

        城市的资源环境和生态系统服务与绿地建设水平有很大关系,其保障程度直接影响中国城市化的速度与质量,制约着城市化的可持续发展。因此,开展城市化速度以及资源环境和绿地建设水平的地区差异研究对提高城市化和城市资源环境质量以及生态系统服务价值具有重要意义。本文运用相关分析、冗余分析、因子分析和多元回归分析等方法,分析了2000-2014 年全国地级及以上城市的人口城市化速度和建成区面积城市化速度,探讨了城市化发展与城市规模、资源、环境、经济、社会等因素的相关性,明确了影响中国城市化速度地区差异的关键因素。同时,探究了2014 年全国省会城市资源消耗、污染排放和绿地建设与城市化水平、经济发展水平、气候以及城市规模等因素之间的关系,分析讨论了城市资源环境和生态系统的地区差异特征及其主要影响因素。主要结果如下:
        (1)人口平均年增长率的范围在-2.18%-6.74%之间,均值为1.06%;建成区面积平均年增长率的范围在0%-15.00%之间,均值为5.35%。建成区面积城市化速度总体上远高于人口城市化速度,不利于集约型和节约型社会建设。西北地区和华北地区的人口城市化速度较快,主要受到资源因素尤其是水资源的影响;华东、西南和中南地区的建成区面积城市化速度较快,主要受到地理因子的影响,具有地理区位优势地区(东南沿海)的城市化速度较快。但长期以往,将会造成东南地区的资源(尤其是土地资源)紧张及环境污染的加重,不利于城市的可持续发展。
        因此,在城市化发展的过程中,应该遵循集约、紧凑的发展理念,不仅要考虑每个区域的资源环境承载力,也要提高资源开发利用和输送调配的效率,减小对资源的浪费和生态环境的破坏。
        (2)中国城市的资源消耗和污染排放存在一定的地区差异性。南方城市主要以水电资源消耗为主,污染排放以生活污水为主;北方城市煤炭和天然气消耗量较大,污染排放主要是工业废气、工业废水以及工业固体废物。影响我国省会城市生活资源消耗的主要因素是气候(解释变异量为0.40),其次是经济发展水平(0.14)和城市规模(0.11)。而污染排放的主要影响因素是城市规模(解释变异量为0.21),其次是经济发展水平(0.17)和气候(0.16)。
        中国省会城市的市辖区绿地率及人均绿地和人均公园面积在不同城市间存在很大差异,但是没有明显的地理分布规律。市辖区绿地率、人均绿地面积和人均公园绿地面积的均值(范围)分别为8.1%(1.8%~34.5%)、58.4m2(27.1m2~190.6m2)和14.0m2(7.9m2~32.0m2)。多元统计分析表明,绿地建设水平的城市间差异同时受到城市化水平、经济水平、自然气候和城市规模等因素的综合影响,并且对于反映城市绿地建设水平的不同指标,各类影响因素的贡献也存在差异。但总体上看,城市化水平和经济水平对绿地建设水平的影响最大。
        资源环境是城市发展的基础,明确不同城市资源消耗和污染排放的关键限制因素,采取各自适宜的措施和对策,提高资源利用效率和污染治理能力对城市的可持续发展及环境保护有重要意义。而城市绿地是衡量城市生态环境的重要指标,其发展水平对提高城市的生态环境质量以及绿地生态系统服务价值有很大作用。因此,应该在现有的城区土地基础上遵循集约、紧凑的城市化发展理念,立体化改善城市绿地系统结构布局,提高我国城市绿地建设水平。同时针对城市绿地建设水平存在的差异和关键限制因素,因地制宜地制定城市绿地发展对策,使得城市化发展与自然环境条件相协调。

Other Abstract

        Urban resource environment and ecosystem services have a great relationship with the green space construction level. The degree of protection directly affects the speed and quality of China's urbanization and restricts the sustainable development of urbanization. Therefore, the study of regional differences in urbanization speed,resource environment and green space construction level is of great significance to the improvement of urbanization and the quality of urban resource environment and the value of ecosystem services. In this study, the correlation analysis, redundancy analysis, factor analysis and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the population urbanization speed and the urbanization speed of the built-up area for 2000-2014 years. The correlation between urbanization development, urban scale,resources, environment, economy, society and other factors was discussed. The key factors that affecting the regional difference of urbanization speed in China were confirmed. At the same time, the relationship between urban resource consumption,pollution discharge, green space construction level and urbanization level, economic development level, natural climate and urban scale were explored in 2014, and the regional difference characteristics and main influencing factors of urban resource environment and ecosystem were analyzed and discussed. The main results were as follows:
         (1) The average annual growth rate of population was 1.06% (-2.18% ~ 6.74%),the average annual growth rate of built-up area was 5.35% (0% ~ 15%). The urbanization speed of built-up area was faster than that of population  urbanization, which was not conducive to the construction of an intensive and economical society.The speed of population urbanization in the Northwest and North China was fast,which was mainly affected by resource factor, especially water resource. 
        The speed of built-up area urbanization in Eastern, Southwest and the Central South was rapid, which was affected by geographical factor. Area with a geographically advantage (Southeast coast) has rapid urbanization. However, it will cause the shortage of resource (especially land resource) and the increase of environmental pollution in the Southeastern region, which is not conducive to the sustainable development of the city
over the long-term.
        Therefore, we must not only consider the resource and environmental carrying capacity of each region, but also improve the efficiency of resource development utilization and transportation to reduce the waste of resource and the destruction of ecological environment by following an intensive and compact concept of development in the process of urbanization.
         (2) There were significant differences in urban resource consumption and pollution emission in China. In Southern cities, the resource consumption was mainly by water and electricity, and the pollution discharge was mainly by domestic sewage. The consumption of coal and natural gas in theNorthern cities was large, and the main pollution emission was industrial waste gas, industrial waste water and industrial solid waste. The main influencing factor of the consumption of living resource in China'sprovincial capital city was climate (explained variation was 0.40), followed by economic development level (0.14) and urban scale (0.11). And urban scale was the main influencing factor of pollution emission (explained variation was 0.21), followed by economic development level (0.17) and climate (0.16). 
          The rate of green space and per capita green space and per capita park area in urban area were quite different in different cities, but there was no obvious geographical distribution rule.The average green space rate in the municipal district of the provincial capital city was 8.1% (1.8% to 34.5%). The average green area per
capita was 58.4m2 (27.1m2 to 190.6m2) and the average park green area per capita was 14.0m2 (7.9m2 to 32.0m2). The multivariate statistical analysis showed that the differences in urban green space were influenced by the factors such as urbanization level, economic level, natural climate and urban scale, and the contribution of various
factors that reflect the level of urban green space construction was also different. However, the urbanization level and economic level had the greatest impact on the level of green space construction on the whole.
        Resource and environment are the basis of urban development. It is necessary to define the key constraint factors of resource consumption and pollution emission in different cities, adopt appropriate measures and countermeasures, and improve the efficiency of resource use and pollution control. This is of great significance for the sustainable development of city and environmental protection. Urban green space is an important indicator to measure the urban ecological environment and its level of development plays a significant role in improving the quality of the city's ecological environment and the value of green space ecosystem service. Therefore, we should follow the urbanization development principle of intensive and compact on the basis of the existing urban land, to improve the layout of urban green space systems in a three-dimensional manner and the level of urban green space construction in China.At the same time, measures for the development of urban green space shall be formulated according to local conditions so that the urbanization development is coordinated with natural environment conditions in view of the differences in the level of urban green space construction and the key constraint factors.

Pages84
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/42363
Collection城市与区域生态国家重点实验室
Corresponding Author杨晓娇
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
杨晓娇. 中国城市化速度及城市资源环境效应的地区差异研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院生态环境研究中心,2018.
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