RCEES OpenIR  > 城市与区域生态国家重点实验室
黄土区异质性景观中 生物多样性与生态系统功能的关系
Alternative TitleRelationship between Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning in a Heterogeneous Landscape of the Loess Plateau, China
朱林海
Subtype博士后
Thesis Advisor傅伯杰
2017-01
Degree Grantor中国科学院生态环境研究中心
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name理学
Degree Discipline生态学
Keyword性状 a Bundance c Ommunity Size s Peices Diversity f Unctional Diversity e Cosystem Service e Cosystem Functioning e Cosystem Multifunctionality 多度 群落规模 物种多样性 功能多样性 生态系统服务 生 态系统功能 生态系统多功能性 t Rait
Abstract

          从个体到群落水平物种、性状和多度是生物多样性的基本要素。 生物学和非生物学的环境变化会影响物种的性状,最终决定物种的存在和多度。而具有特定性状的物种的多度会 同时 影响 多重 生态系统功能的变化 。 生态学家提出不同的生态学理论解释生态系统功能变化的机制,生物量比率假说强度优势种性状的作用,生态位分化假说强调性状多样性的作用, Green Soup 假说强调群落规模的作用。简言之,生态系统功能变化是群落“质”和“量”的属性共同作用的结果。尽管群落变化驱动了多重功能的变化,目前大部分研究局限于对于单一功能的研究,可能会低估生物多样性的作用。大尺度的整合分析证实了生物多样性对于生态系统多功能性的驱动作用。但是,关于生物多样性各个要素之间的不同作用,学术界尚未完全达成共识。 对于性状关系的最新研究证实了植物性状生 态学功能的背景依赖性。因此,针对特定生态系统, 建立性状与环境(功能)的机械联系是准确理解群落功能响应和效应的保障。 局域是进行生态系统恢复、调控和管理的重要尺度。 目前,只 有较少的研究综合分析和比较了群落“质”和“量”的属性的不同作用, 在局域尺度上进行生态系统多功能性的研究 也 相对较为缺乏 。
         为了强化对于群落功能响应和效应的理解,深化对于生态系统功能和服务提供机制的认识,评价不同恢复措施对生态系统功能的影响 ,增强我们对于生态系统调控和管理的能力 。本研究在黄土高原羊圈沟小流域开展了相关研究。 目前,该流域内包含森林、 灌木、半灌木、草地、农田 等 多种生态系统类型在内的异质性景观是退耕还林还草时采用不同恢复措施 后 形成的。 退耕还林还草之前,该流域内主要的土地利用类型为农业用地。不同生态系统的初始条件较为一致。 因此,这种异质性景观是检验生态学理论、评价不同恢复模式的理想场所。鉴于临近流域在早期的农业实践、退耕还林还草模式、最终的景观格局等方面的相似性,研究结果具有较强的外推性。
        我们调查和测定了不同生态系统中的物种组成、多度和性状,土壤容重、碳氮含量等环境因子,以及土壤碳氮贮量、群落盖度 和生物量、凋落物盖度和生物量、年产沙量和产 流量等生态系统功能。利用网络分析研究了高度、叶片和根系等 16 个性状的维度性,确定了代表植物功能变化的关键性状。利用 Fouth corner分析建立了性状、多度和生态系统属性的机械联系,比较了不同多度的连接作用。利用广义线性混合效应模型比较了群落规模和生物多样性的不同组分对于土壤碳贮量的影响,并利用不同方法计算多性状功能多样性指数,尝试增强多性状指数对于生态系统功能的解释能力。比较了不同生态系统的多功能性,分析了物种丰富度与生态系统多功能性的关系。同时,评价了不同恢复措施对于生态系统功能的影响。 主要结果如下:
         (1 )网络分析确定了具有 6 个维度的非随机性状网络,各个维度上的关键性状为叶片抗穿刺强度、高度、根系抗拉强度、根系质量分数、比叶面积和叶片氮含量。 某些维度之间并不是完全独立的,反映了它们之间存在共同的生态和进化压力。 与非限制性排序相比,网络分析可以更真实、有效地展示性状之间的关系。
         (2) Fourth corner 分析表明,与性状相比,多度在理解本研究的生态系统属性方面具有更重要的作用。与生物量相比,盖度在理解本研究的生态系统属性方面具有更重要的作用。高度与土壤容重、土壤碳氮比负相关,与土壤总氮含量、群落盖 度、群落 地上 生物量和凋落物生物量正相关。根系深度和侧向分布与土壤容重、土壤碳氮比负相关,与土壤有机质和总氮含量、群落盖度、群落 地上 生物量和凋落物生物量正相关。叶片面积与土壤碳氮比和凋落物盖度负相关。
        (3) 群落规模和性状多样性(或群落功能参数)共同影响了土壤碳贮量的变化,群落规模具有更重要的作用。同时,性状多样性的表现优于物种多样性的表现;单性状指数的表现类似于和优于多性状指数、多指数集合预报的表现。 多性状指数的表现具有较大的改进空间。 包含比叶面积计算的功能多样性指数和群落规模在内的模型获得了最佳的预报能力 。
         (4) 研究区域内,某些特定物种(刺槐 Robinia pseudoacacia 和杨树 Populus simonii )和物种丰富度对于多功能性均具有较大的影响。排除树木样方后,随物种丰富度的增加,其他生态系统的多功能性呈显著的增加趋势。
         (5 )退耕还林还草后,除土壤氮贮量外,林灌草等生态系统的其他功能与玉米 Zea mays 农田生态系统相比均有所提高。物种丰富度较低、生物量较高的刺槐 林 和杨树林 的 多功能性较高。
        本研究的结果进一步证实了植物性状生态学功能的背景依赖性。生物量比率、生态位分化和 Green So up 假说并不是相互排斥的,可以同时解释生态系统功能的变化。生态系统功能的提供是群落“质”和“量”的属性共同作用的结果。在考虑生态系统承载力和社会经济条件的基础上,维持 和提高 黄土高原多重 生态系统功能和服务的 供给能力 ,需要同时考虑群落的生产力和生物多样性 ,特别是性状多样性 。

Other Abstract

        Species, trait and abundance are the essential components of biodiversity at the scales from individual to community. Biotic and abiotic environmental variations affect specie trait, consequently determine the species presence and abundance. The abundance of species with specific traits drives the simultaneous chang es of multiple ecosystem functions. Ecologists proposed different theor ies or hypothes e s to describe the mechanism for the changes of ecosystem functioning. Biomass ratio hypothesis,niche patitioning theory, and green soup hypothesi s highlight different i mportance of dominant traits, trait diversity and community size, respectively. In a word, the quality and quantity of communities drive the changes of ecosystem functioning together. However, althouth the changes of communities drive the simultaneous chan ges of multiple ecosystem functions, most of the present studies investigated individual functions separately, and may underestimate the importance of biodiversity. The synthetic analyses implemented at larger scales confirm ed the driv ing of biodiversity to ecosystem multifunctionality. However, no consensus exists on the relative importance of different components of biodiversity. The recent studies on trait relationships suggest ed the context dependency of ecological functions of plant traits. Therefore,establishing the mechanistic links between traits and environmental variations (or ecosystem functions) is pivotal to understand the functional responses and effects of communities. Ecosystem restoration, regulation and management are usually implemented a t the local scales. Presently, few studies analyse d and compare d the relative importance of the quality and quantity of communities, ecosystem multifunctionality wa s also rarely studied at the local scales.
        We implemented our study in the Yangjuangou small watershed of the Loess Pleateau, China to further understand functional responses and effects of communities and the mechanisms for the provision of ecosystem functions or services. W e also assessed the effects of different restoration pratices on the eco system functioning to enhance our ability of regulating and managing ecosystems.Currently, different restoration practices of China s Grain for Green Project in this watershed resulted in a heterogeneaous landscape that comprises forests, shrublands, semi shrub lands,grasslands and croplands. Before the implementation of Grain for Green Project, cropland was the main land use in this watershed, which impl ies that the initial conditions are similar in different ecosystems. Therefore, t his heterogeneaous lan dscape stands for an ideal system to test the different ecological theor ies and assess the different restoration practices. The results from this study are easily extraplotaed considering the similarity of the previsous agricultural practices, the restoration practices, and final landscape pattern.
         We investigated and measured the species composition, abundance and trait of different ecosystems, the environmental factors (soil bulk density, carbon and nitrogen concentrations), and the ecosystem functions (s oil carbon and nitrogen storage, community cover and aboveground biomass, litter cover and biomass, annual soil loss and runoff). We determined the dimensionality of 16 traits (including plant height, leaf and root traits), identified the key traits repres enting plant functional varations. We established the mechanistic link among trait, abundance, and ecosystem properties and compared the different intermediate effects of biomass and cover using the fouth corner analysis . We use d the generalized linear mix ed effect models to compare the effect of community size and the different components of biodiversity on soil carbon storage. We used different methods to calculate the multiple trait functional diversity indices, aiming to enhance their ablity to explain the ecosystem functioning. We compared the multifunctionality of different ecosystems and analyzed the relationship between species richness and ecosystem multifuncitonality. We evaluated the effect of different restoration practices on ecosystem functioni ng.
        (1)We established a non random trait network of six dimensions and identif ied the six key traits in different dimensions using network analysis. The six traits were force to punch a leaf, plant height, force to tear a root, root mass fraction, specific leaf area, and leaf nitrogen concentration. Some dimensions are not independent, which implies the common ecological and evolutionary pressures exerted on them. Compared with unconstrained ordination, network analysis can objectively and effectively desc ribe the trait relationships.
        (2)The fourth corner analysis suggested that abundance was more important than trait to understand the investigated ecosystem properties. Compared with biomass,coverage was more important. Height was negatively associated wi th soil bulk density and soil C N ratio, and positively associated with soil total nitrogen concentration,community cover, aboveground biomass and litter biomass. Root depth and lateral spread were negatively associated with soil bulk density and soil C/N ratio, and positive ly associated with soil organic matter and total nitrogen concentrations,community cover, aboveground biomass, and litter biomass. Leaf area was negatively associated with soil C/N ratio and litter cover.
        (3 ) Community size and trait d iversity (or community functional parameters) affected the soil carbon storage together, and the effect of community size was more important than tho se of biodiversity. Trait diversity is more associated with soil carbon storage than species diversity. Sin gle trait functional diversity indices performed similar to or better than multiple trait indices and the ensemble forecast of multiple single trait indices. The performance of multiple trait indices can be improved greatly. The best models to forecast the soil carbon storage consist of community size and the functional diversity indices calculated u s ing specific leaf area
         (4)The certain species (such as Robinia pseudoacacia and Populus simonii and species richness siginificantly affected the ecosystem m ultifunctionality. After the forests were excluded from the analysis , ecosystem multifuncitonality increased with species richness.
        (5) Besides the soil nitrogen storage, other ecosystem functions of forests, shrublands and grasslands were higher than those of corn Zea mays ) cropland ecosystem a fter the implementation of Grain for Green Project. The multifunctionality of forests (dominated by R pseudoacacia and P simonii , respectively) is higher than those of other ecosystems.
         These results confirm that the context dependency of ecological functions of plant traits. The biomass ratio hypothesis, niche patitioning theory, and green soup hypothesis were not mutualy exclusive, and commonly explained the changes of ecosystem functioning . The quantity and qual ity of communities together drive the provision of ecosystem functions. Takeing into account the carry ing capacity of ecosystem s and local social and economic condtions, sustain ing and increasing the provision of multiple ecosystem functions or services sh ould consider the productivity and biodiversity of communities, especially trait diversity.

Pages112
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/42366
Collection城市与区域生态国家重点实验室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
朱林海. 黄土区异质性景观中 生物多样性与生态系统功能的关系[D]. 北京. 中国科学院生态环境研究中心,2017.
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