RCEES OpenIR  > 水污染控制实验室
新型厌氧膜生物反应器 厌氧氨氧化组合工艺研究
Alternative TitleDevelopment of a novel combined AnMBR-Anammox process
王红艳
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor魏源送
2020-09
Degree Grantor中国科学院生态环境研究中心
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name工学博士
Degree Discipline环境工程
Keyword厌氧膜生物反应器,厌氧氨氧化, 硝酸盐积累 ,污泥流失 ,组合工艺 Anmbr, Anammox, Nitrate Accumulation, Biomass Loss, Combined Technologies
Abstract

     厌氧膜生物反应器Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor, AnMBR 、 一体式部分亚硝化 -厌氧氨氧化 Combined partial nitritation-Anammox process, CPNA 是污水 生物 除碳、脱氮领域 的 新型 高效 生物技术 如何将两种技术耦合并应用于高 浓度 有机物 、 高 浓度 氨氮废水领域 的研究仍然 极其缺乏 。 本文 以马铃薯加工废水为处理对象,首先 通过 中温厌氧消化批实验 Biochemical Methane Potential, BMP研究 分别考察了不同有机负荷 和 不同氨氮浓度对其厌氧消化的影响及微生物学影响 机制。基于批实验的研究结果, 设计 构建 AnMBR反应器 ,并 在 中温条件下开展 连续 试验 研究 ,考察其有机物去除效果、膜污染特征及氮 、 磷污染物释放特征,为 AnMBR和 CPNA耦合提供基础。其次, 基于课题组 已有 CPNA连续运行及维护的基础,设计 、 研发 和 优化 CPNA运行工序 及控制逻辑,并考察羟胺投加对生物脱氮工艺过程的影响。 最终 基于对厌氧消化和 CPNA两部分研究基础, 构建 AnMBR-CPNA耦合装置( AMNA)),并设计与耦合工艺配套的全流程控制逻辑,为高效短流程除碳脱氮提供科技支撑。
     马铃薯加工废水BMP研究 结果表明 1 厌氧消化过程中,高有机负荷组因氨氮释放浓度增加产生 FAN抑制, 导致 丙酸积累 和 丙酸型产甲烷 。 2 马铃薯加工废水厌氧消化氨氮抑制阈值为 3,000 mg/L,主要氨氮抑制机理为厌氧消化前期 TAN抑制导致乙酸和丙酸积累,使得产甲烷滞后;后期随着乙酸的不断消耗, pH值升高, FAN抑制互营丙酸降解菌而中断反应,造成丙酸积累,使总产气量降低 。 3 Methanosaccina可耐受高有机负荷 而 Methanomassiliicoccus则可 耐受高氨氮, 氢营养型产甲烷菌 ethanomicrobiale 和 甲烷八叠球菌Methanosarcina主要受氨氮 影响 。
     外置管式AnMBR处理 马铃薯加工废水 的 研究 结果表明 反应器 可在 50天内 启动 容积负荷为 2~10 kg m3 d COD去除率达到 95%以上 。 马铃薯加工废水膜污染 物 构成包括蛋白质等大分子的吸附污染、无机垢沉淀污染和生物污染, 其单一化学药剂清洗以 NaClO效果最佳 。
      2 mg N/(L·d) 羟胺投加或 运行 工序调整( 进水后 增设缺氧搅拌过程)可有效缓解 CPNA在长期低 DO连续曝气运行高发的硝酸盐积累问题 羟胺投加还可促进部分亚硝化的实现 ,而 工序调整 也 有益于污泥流失的控制 。 CPNA体系污泥流失原因包括微生物对环境的适应、羟胺 等有毒化学品的 投加、硝酸盐积累,其中羟胺投加影响 微生物,进而导致污泥聚集性变差,粒径分布左移或使得影响污泥沉降性的 亚硝态氮 积累,最终都使得 SVI增加;硝酸盐积累为反硝化丝状菌提供了基质,促进其生长增殖,产生丝状菌污泥膨胀 。 控制 CPNA体系污泥流失的方法:促进可充当污泥骨架的微生物生长、不投加羟胺 等化学药剂 、进行运行工序调整 和 控制机械作用(曝气、搅拌)强度 等。
      基于污染物去除衔接 和 水量 调节 ,设计搭建了配备 PLC系统的 AnMBR-ANAMMOX耦合 装置,并通过小试研究考察了不同有机碳源对反硝化过程中硝酸盐去除和 亚硝态氮 积累的影响,结果表明 尽管三种有机物 乙酸钠CH3COONa、 沼液 磁混凝出水 BSW、马铃薯加工废水 PPW 均会 促进 亚硝 态 氮积累,但 马铃薯加工废水 为最佳碳源 因为其 氮转化率优于 沼液磁混凝出水 且反应不会过度提高反应体系 pH值, 当 将反应时间设置为 2 h,可 为 后续ANAMMOX工艺 运行提供充足的 亚硝态氮 基质,实现 组合装置 的高效衔接 。
 

Other Abstract

      Anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) and combined partial nitritation anammox process (CPNA) are new and efficient biological technologies in the field of biological COD and nitrogen removal from wastewater. However, studies on how to couple the two technologies in the field of high concentration organic matter and high concentration ammonia nitrogen wastewater is still scarce. In this paper, potato processing wastewater (PPW) was treated. Firstly, the effects of different organic loads and concentrations of ammonia nitrogen on the anaerobic digestion of PPW and the mechanism of microbiological effects were investigated through mesophilic anaerobic batch experiment (Biochemical Methane Potential, BMP). Based on BMP results, an AnMBR reactor was designed and constructed. Continuous mesophilic experiments were carried out to investigate the removal effect of organic matter, the membrane fouling characteristics and the release characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus pollutants, so as to provide the basis for the coupling of AnMBR and Anammox. Secondly, based on the existing CPNA continuous operation and maintenance of the research group, an adjustment of SBR procedure and control logic of CPNA were designed, developed and optimized, and the effect of hydroxylamine (NH2OH) addition on biological nitrogen removal process was investigated. Finally, based on the results of anaerobic digestion and CPNA, the AnMBR-Anammox coupling device (AMNA) was constructed, and the whole process control logic matched with AMNA was designed to provide scientific and technological support for efficient and short-process COD and nitrogen removal.
      The results of PPW’s BMP tests showed that: (1) Higher organic load groups produced high concentration of free ammonia nitrogen (FAN) due to the increase of ammonia nitrogen release, and the FAN inhibition resulted in propionic acid accumulation and propionic acid type methane production. (2) The inhibition threshold of ammonia nitrogen in the anaerobic digestion of PPW is 3,000 mg/L. The main mechanism of ammonia nitrogen inhibition was that total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) inhibition and the FAN inhibition in the early and late anaerobic digestion stage, respectively. The main inhibition mechanisms were TAN inhibition led to the accumulation of acetic acid and propionic acid, causing the lag of methane production in early stage, then the pH was increased due to the continuous consumption of acetic acid, FAN increase caused the syntrophic propionic acid degradation bacteria inhibition , suspending the anaerobic digestion process, leading to the decrease of total biogas production. (3) Methanosaccina could tolerate high organic loads, while Methanomassiliicoccus could tolerate high ammonia nitrogen concentrations. Methanomicrobiale and Methanosarcina were the main methanogens affected by ammonia nitrogen.
     The study results of AnMBR with external membrane module processing PPW showed that the reactor could be started up within 50 days and its volumetric loading rate (VLR) and COD was 2~10 kg COD/(m3·d) COD removal efficiency could reach and even exceed 95%.The membrane fouling of PPW was consisted of adsorption of protein and other macromolecules, inorganic scale deposition and biofouling. When the fouling membrane was cleaned by single chemical reagents, soaking into 5% NaClO solution for 4 h worked best.
       An amount of 2 mg N/(L·d) NH2OH dosing or operation process adjustment (adding anoxic stirring process after feeding) can effectively alleviate the nitrate accumulation problem of CPNA during the long-term continuous aeration operation under low DO concentration. NH2OH dosing can also promote the start-up of partial nitritation process. Besides, operational procedure adjustment was also beneficial to biomass loss control. The possible reasons for biomass loss in CPNA system included the adaptation of microorganisms to the environment, the addition of toxic chemicals like hydroxylamine, and nitrate build-up. NH2OH affected microorganisms, which led to the poor aggregation of sludge and the left shift of particle size distribution or the accumulation of nitrite, which also affected the settling property of sludge, and ultimately increased the SVI. Nitrate accumulation provided substrate for denitrifying filamentous bacteria, promoted its growth and proliferation, and caused filamentous sludge bulking. Practical methods for biomass loss control in CPNA system included: to promote the growth of microorganisms that can act as sludge framework, no addition of chemicals like NH2OH, adjust the operational procedure and control the mechanical actions like aeration or agitation intensity, etc.
      Based on correlation of contaminants removal and regulation of water quantity, AnMBR-ANAMMOX coupling device equipped with PLC system was designed and built. The effects of different organic carbon sources on the removal of nitrate and the accumulation of nitrite during denitrification process were investigated. The results showed that although all the organics (PPW, CH3COONa, Effluent from biogas slurry magnetic coagulation, BSW) could lead to nitrite accumulation, PPW was the best carbon source. Because its nitrogen conversion rate was higher than that of BSW. it could provide enough nitrite for the following ANAMMOX process when the reaction time was set to 2 hours, and realize efficient connection of AnMBR-ANAMMOX coupling device.

Pages190
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/43661
Collection水污染控制实验室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王红艳. 新型厌氧膜生物反应器 厌氧氨氧化组合工艺研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院生态环境研究中心,2020.
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