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农村有机固废两段式协同堆肥 及生物炭固氮技术研究
Alternative TitleResearch on Two stage Cooperative Composting of Rural Organic Solid Waste and Biochar Nitrogen Fixation Technology
王霄
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor郭雪松
2020-12
Degree Grantor中国科学院生态环境研究中心
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name工学硕士
Degree Discipline环境工程
Keyword农村 有机固体废弃物 剩余污泥,两段式 协同堆肥 生物炭固氮 Rural Area, Organic Solid Waste, Surplus Sludge, Two Stage Co Composting, Biochar Nitrogen Fixation
Abstract

        随着城乡一体化的不断推进以及乡村振兴战略计划的实施,农村有机固体废弃物的处理处置 成为建设“美丽乡村”的关键 问题。好氧堆肥技术作为一种废弃物综合处理方式,能够实现废弃物的“减量化、无害化、资源化”处理。
     本研究针对 农村污水处理设施 的剩余污泥 、农作物秸秆、厨余垃圾 的特征及好氧堆肥工艺特点 开展了 两段式高温 好氧 堆肥 技术研究;针对氮素的保留,探讨了 添加生物炭对堆肥效果的影响及 其 固氮 效果 。 研究表明:
     农村有机固废是堆肥资源化的优质原料,适宜协同堆肥。农村剩余污泥有机质含量 80.12%80.12%;总氮 32g/kg ;总磷 6.02g/kg ;总钾 6.65g/kg 厨余垃圾有机质含量 72%72%;总氮 51.6g/kg ;总磷 7.9g/kg ;总钾 2.8g/kg 玉米秸秆有机质含量 7.74%总氮 15.6g/kg ;总磷 5.7g/kg ;总钾 6.5g/kg 。
     两段式协同堆肥工艺减少了堆肥物料50% 的 设备停留时间;产品达到腐熟养分指标 达到 《城镇污水处理厂污泥处置园林绿化用泥质》( GB/T 23486 2009 )、《有机肥标准》( NY 525 2012 )、《生物有机肥标准》 NY 884 2004 )以及《堆肥质量标准》 香港, 2005) 实现了无害化 和减量化 达到了《粪便无害化卫生要求》( GB7959 2012 对照组减重 55%55%,减容 65%65%;实验组减重 60%60%,减容 75% 。
      生物炭的添加优化了堆肥过程 :最高堆温提高 5 ℃,高温期延长 4 d ;提高了21% 的总钾保留 、 23% 的速效钾保留 、 14% 的总磷保留 、 94% 的有效磷保留 ;有机质降解率 提高了 25% 总有机碳降解率提高了 8%8%,促进了 5% 的腐殖质积累提高了堆肥过程中不同阶段优势菌种的丰度,促进了堆肥过程中和氮循环 相关的功能微生物的作用,提高了堆料中 25 的总氮固定 NH 4 N 转化量提高了 17%NO 3 N 的 保留增加了 3 6% 随 渗滤液 流失的 TN 降低了 3 6% NH 4 N 降低 46%NO 3 N 降低 42% NO 2 N 降低 42% 高温期实时 NH 3 排放浓度降低了将近 90% 。

Other Abstract

       With the continuous advancement of urban rural integration and the implementation of the rural revitalization strategic plan, the treatment and disposa l of rural organic solid waste has become a key issue for the construction of "beautiful villages". As a comprehensive waste treatment method, aerobic composting technology can realize waste reduction, harmlessness, and resource utilization.
      Based on the characteristics of residual sludge, crop straws, kitchen waste and aerobic composting process characteristics of rural sewage treatment facilities, this study carried out a two stage high temperature aerobic composting technology research;for the retention of nitrogen, the addition of biochar was discussed The effect on composting effect and its nitrogen fixation effect. research shows:
       Rural organic solid waste is a high quality raw material for composting resources,suitable for collaborative composting. Organic matter content of rural sludge is 80.12%;total nitrogen 32g/kg; total phosphorus 6.02g/kg; total potassium 6.65g/kg; kitchen waste organic matter content 72%; total nitrogen 51.6g/kg; total phosphorus 7.9g/kg ;
Total potassium 2.8g/kg; corn stover organic matter content 7.74%; total nitrogen 15.6g/kg; total phosphorus 5.7g/kg; total potassium 6.5g/kg.
       The two stage collaborative composting process reduces the equipment residence time of composting materials by 50%; the product reaches maturity; the nutrient index reaches "Urban sewage treatment plant sludge disposal and garden greening mud" (GB/T 23486 2009), "Organic fertilizer Standards (NY 525 2012), Standards for Bio organic Fertilizers (NY 884 2004) and Quality Standards for Composting (Hong Ko ng, 2005); achieved harmlessness and reached the "Sanitary Requirements for the Harmlessness of Feces" (GB7959 2012).
       The addition of biochar optimizes the composting process: the maximum pile temperature is increased by 5℃, and the high temperature period is extended by 4 days; the total potassium retention by 21%, the available potassium retention by 23%, the the total pota ssium retention by 21%, the available potassium retention by 23%, the total phosphorus retention by 14%, and the available phosphorus retention by 94% are improved ; The degradation rate of organic matter increased by 25%, and the degradation rate of total organic carbon increased by 8%, which promoted the accumulation of 5% of humus; increased the abundance of dominant bacteria in diffe rent stages of the composting process, and promoted the nitrogen cycle during the composting process. The role of functional microorganisms has increased the total nitrogen fixation in the stockpiles by 25 %, the conversion of NH 4 N increased by 17%,the retention of NO 3 N increased by 36%, and the loss of TN with the leachate decreased by 36%. NH 4 N is reduced by 46%, NO 3 N is reduced by 42%, NO 2 N is reduced by 42%; the real time NH 3 emission concentration during the high temperature period is reduced by nearly 90%.

Pages122
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/43667
Collection水污染控制实验室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王霄. 农村有机固废两段式协同堆肥 及生物炭固氮技术研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院生态环境研究中心,2020.
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