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基于修正风蚀方程的全球土壤保持服务模拟
Alternative TitleGlobal soil conservation service simulation based on revised wind erosion equation
杨国成
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor陈利顶 ; 孙然好
2020-09
Degree Grantor中国科学院生态环境研究中心
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Name工学硕士
Degree Discipline环境工程
Keyword修正风蚀方程,土壤风蚀 强度 ,土壤保持服务,全球 revised Wind Erosion Equation,Soil Wind Erosion Intensity, Soil Conservation Services, The Global
Abstract

全球土壤风蚀评估对于识别风蚀热点区域,明确土壤保持服务重点地区具有重要意义 但是现有风蚀评估模型在全球尺度推广应用存在较大困难,开展风蚀模型的参数率定和尺度推绎对于准确评估全 球土壤风蚀至关重要。
本研究基于RWEQ模型对风蚀影响因子进行了参数率定和优化计算,结合遥感、地理信息系统和数理统计方法,构建了适用于全球尺度的土壤风蚀评估模型。运用该模型估算了 2001~2010年全球土壤风蚀,分析了土壤风蚀强度的时空分布与变化特征 ,明确了土壤保持服务重点地区。主要的研究结果如下:
    (1) 全球微度以上风蚀区面积为8866.85万km2,约占全球陆地面积的59.55 %。微度、轻度、中度、强度、极强度和剧烈风蚀面积分别占风蚀区总面积的56.05 %、20.81 %、5.58 %、3.43 %、3.64 %和10.84 %。剧烈风蚀量约占全球土壤风蚀总量的86.19 %。
    (2)全球各大洲风蚀面积占全球风蚀区面积的百分比中,非洲、亚洲、南美洲、大洋洲、北美洲和欧洲分别占32.93 %、28.76 %、18.89 %、9.54 %、8.76 %和1.11%。非洲、亚洲、南美洲、大洋洲、北美洲和欧洲的多年平均风蚀强度分别为15864.66、5369.77 、2645.22、1728.79、904.45和46.39 t∙km-2∙yr-1。全球各大洲风蚀量占全球总风蚀量的百分比中,非洲、亚洲、南美洲、大洋洲、北美洲和欧洲分别占70.34%、20.79%、4.4%、3.4%、1.07%和0.007%。
     (3)全球平均土壤风蚀强度在2009年达到最高7832 t∙km-2∙yr-1,在2005年达到最低5107 t∙km-2∙yr-1。2001~2002年和2005~2009年,全球平均风蚀强度呈现增强趋势,其中2007~2009年风蚀强度增强趋势显著。2002~2005年和2009~2010年,全球平均风蚀强度呈现减弱趋势,其中2009~2010年风蚀强度减弱趋势显著。
    (4)2001到2010年全球土壤风蚀强度总体呈现减弱趋势,平均变化斜率为-2.42 t∙km-2∙yr-1。全球有 40.62 %的区域土壤风蚀 强度 呈现加剧趋势, 其中有4.4 %的区域超过5%显著性水平,平均斜率为1204.42 t∙km-2∙yr-1。全球有59.38 %的区域土壤风蚀 强度 呈现减弱 趋势,其中有10.71 %的区域超过5 %显著性水平,平均斜率为-515.81 t∙km-2∙yr-1。
    (5)全球土壤风蚀敏感区主要在非洲和亚洲,欧洲土壤风蚀风险最小。全球土壤保持服务重点区域主要集中在秘鲁、阿根廷、撒哈拉沙漠、纳米比亚、阿拉伯半岛、伊朗、 哈萨克斯坦、 澳大利亚中南部 和中国西北部 等地区。

Other Abstract

      Global wind erosion assessment is of great significance for identifying hot spots of wind erosion and defining key areas of soil conservation services. However, it is difficult for the existing wind erosion assessment models to be popularized and applied on a global scale. Therefore, it is encential to carry out parameter calibration and scale generalization of wind erosion models for accurate assessment of global soil wind erosion.
Based on RWEQ model, this study conducted parameter calibration and optimization calculation of wind erosion impact factors, combined with remote sensing, geographic information system and mathematical statistical methods, and constructed a soil wind erosion assessment model applicable to the global scale. The model was used to estimate global soil wind erosion from 2001 to 2010, and the spatial and temporal distribution and variation characteristics of soil wind erosion intensity were analyzed, and the key areas of soil conservation service were identified. The main research results are as follows:
     (1) The global wind erosion area above micro degree is 88.6685 million km2, accounting for 59.55% of the global land area. Microdegree, mild, moderate, intensity, extreme intensity and severe wind erosion area respectively account for 56.05 %, 20.81 %, 5.58 %, 3.43 %, 3.64 % and 10.84 % of the total area of wind erosion area. Severe wind erosion accounts for 86.19 % of the total soil erosion.
     (2) The wind erosion area of every continent accounts for the percentage of the total wind erosion area in the global, Africa, Asia, South America, Oceania, North America and Europe account for 32.93 %, 28.76 %, 18.89 %, 9.54 %, 8.76 % and 1.11% ,respectively. The multi-year mean wind erosion intensities of Africa, Asia, South America, Oceania, North America and Europe were 15864.66, 5369.77, 2645.22, 1728.79, 904.45 and 46.39 t∙km-2∙yr-1, respectively. Soil wind erosion in Africa, Asia, South America, Oceania, North America and Europe accounted for 70.34%, 20.79%, 4.4%, 3.4%, 1.07% and 0.007% of global wind erosion, respectively.
     (3) The global average soil wind erosion intensity reached a maximum of 7832 t∙km-2∙yr-1 in 2009 and a minimum of 5107 t∙km-2∙yr-1 in 2005. From 2001 to 2002 and from 2005 to 2009, the global average wind erosion intensity showed an increasing trend, among which the wind erosion intensity increased significantly from 2007 to 2009. From 2002 to 2005 and from 2009 to 2010, the global average wind erosion intensity showed a decreasing trend, in which the wind erosion intensity from 2009 to 2010 showed a significant decreasing trend.
     (4)From 2001 to 2010, the global soil wind erosion showed a weakening trend on the whole, and the average change slope was -2.42 t∙km-2∙yr-1. The wind erosion intensity of soil in 40.62% regions of the world showed a trend of intensification, among which, 4.4% of regions exceeded the significance level of 5%, with an average slope of 1204.42 t∙km-2∙yr-1.The wind erosion intensity of soil in 59.38% of the regions in the world showed a weakening trend, among which 10.71% of the regions exceeded the significance level of 5%, with an average slope of -515.81 t∙km-2∙yr-1。
     (5) The most sensitive areas of soil wind erosion are Africa and Asia, and Europe has the least risk of wind erosion. Global soil conservation service focus areas are concentrated in Peru, Argentina, the Sahara Desert, Namibia, the Arabian Peninsula, Iran, Kazakhstan, south central Australia and northwest China.

Pages83
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/43684
Collection城市与区域生态国家重点实验室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
杨国成. 基于修正风蚀方程的全球土壤保持服务模拟[D]. 北京. 中国科学院生态环境研究中心,2020.
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