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臭味气体原位生物净化新技术研究
Alternative TitleStudy on a novel in-situ technology treating odors
高敏
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor刘俊新
2010-06-01
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline环境工程
Keyword恶臭气体 挥发性有机废气 微生物气溶胶 原位生物净化技术 微生物群落结构 Odors Volatile Organic Compounds (Vocs) Bioaerosol In-situ Purify Technology Microbial Community Structure
Abstract生物技术已广泛应用在挥发性有机化合物(VOCs)和恶臭气体的处理。典型的废气生物处理系统通常包括废气收集系统和生物反应器两部分。然而,对于开放式臭味源,采用管道收集比较困难,而且经济上不合理。为此,本文提出一种用可透气的生物载体将臭味气源隔离、利用气体中分子扩散原理处理臭味气体的臭味气体原位生物净化新技术。该技术不需要气体收集系统,可节省投资和运行费用。 分别以含硫化氢、氨和甲苯等臭味物质的废气为对象,进行了实验室规模的臭味气体原位生物净化技术试验研究,以确定其对臭味气体原位生物净化的技术性能。试验结果表明,对废气中的污染物均能够稳定去除。当废气中含有单一物质时,硫化氢、氨、甲苯的平均去除率分别达到91.61%、92.47%、87.94%;当废气中同时存在氨和硫化氢时,生物降解作用和化学中和作用使得两者都有较高的去除率;当含甲苯的废气中加入硫化氢或氨,甲苯的去除效率有所增加。 运用PCR-DGGE对生物载体上的微生物群落结构和演替规律分析表明,生物群落随着运行条件改变而发生动态变化,以维持系统去除效果的稳定。氨气和甲苯混合气体处理过程中,群落结构的相似性随着运行时间的增加而逐渐升高,生物多样性随着两种气体进气浓度的增加逐渐减小。甲苯处理体系中添加硫化氢气体后,原有甲苯降解菌群群落结构通过动态变化适应了由于硫化氢的存在而导致环境条件的变化,形成新的微生物群落结构以维持系统的稳定。 污水处理过程中产生的臭味气体不仅含有硫化氢和氨等化学物质,还含有微生物气溶胶。对污水处理厂的检测结果表明,在封闭空间,空气中的微生物气溶胶浓度较高。为此,本研究考察原位生物净化技术对微生物气溶胶的去除效果。结果显示,微生物气溶胶在经过原位生物净化技术的微生物载体后,其粒径分布特征发生改变。 以甲苯为目标污染物对原位生物净化技术处理废气的原理和动力学进行了初步探讨。原位生物净化技术对污染物去除机理是生物载体的吸附与微生物降解协同效应,载体的吸附作用能够延长甲苯气体在载体上的停留时间,从而促进甲苯的生物降解作用;而甲苯的生物降解能够增加载体两端浓度差,加速甲苯通过生物载体,从而促进甲苯的吸附作用。 上述研究表明,在臭味污染物质扩散过程中利用微生物降解可以实现臭味气体的原位净化。本研究成果为开放式臭味源的臭味气体处理探索了一种经济、简便和有效的新技术途径。
Other AbstractBiological treatment methods have been employed broadly for the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and odors. The typical waste gas biological treatment systems generally include gas collection system and bioreactor. However, it is difficult and uneconomical to collect the waste gas emitted from large area or dispersed sources. In this study, a novel in-situ biotechnology was developed to purify the odors generated from dispersed sources. The compounds in the odors were separated from surrounding environment by covering a breathable biocarrier. Driven by the concentration difference between feed side and permeated side, they can pass through the biocarrier continuously. This novel technology has low capital and operational costs without gas collection system. To evaluate the performance of this in-situ purifying technology, sulfide hydrogen, ammonia and toluene were treated in the laboratory scale. Results showed that the in-situ purifying technology had high removal efficiency of compounds in the odor gas. When sulfide hydrogen, ammonia or toluene was as a sole pollutant, the removal rate of the in-situ purifying technology reached to 91.61%、92.47%、87.94%, respectively. Sulfide hydrogen and ammonia could be co-treated successfully due to the acid-base neutralization and biodegradation. It would promote the biodegradation of toluene when sulfide hydrogen or ammonia was fed into the toluene-degrading system. Succession and development of microbial community structures in the biocarrier at different operational stage were investigated by molecular biological methods. The results of PCR-DGGE demonstrated that the community structures changed obviously for maintaining the steady removal efficiency. At the mixed gas system of ammonia and toluene, the similarity of community structure increased along with the increasing of running time, while the diversity decreased correspondingly. After feeding sulfide hydrogen, the community structure of toluene removal system dynamically changed to adapt the changing of environment. The shifts of microbial community structure enhanced simultaneous removal of toluene and sulfide hydrogen. Besides chemicals such as sulfide hydrogen and ammonia, bioaerosols are another kind of emission in the wastewater treatment processes. Their emission was monitored at different wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in this study. Results indicated that the concentration of airborne microorganism in closed room was high because of without enough ventilation. Based on the investigation, the capture of bioaerosols by biocarrier was studied. The particle size distribution of bioaerosols changed obviously after passing through the biocarrier. The mechanism of toluene removal by the in-situ purifying technology was preliminary studied. Toluene was removed by the synergistic action of biodegradation of the microorganisms and adsorption of the carrier. The adsorption of carrier prolonged the residence time of toluene on the carrier surface and promoted the efficiency of toluene biodegradation. The biodegradation of microorganisms increased the concentration difference between feed side and permeated side of the carrier. This effect accelerated the transfer of toluene which benefit for the carrier adsorption. The results from this study demonstrated that the odors could be in-situ bio-purified effectively during their diffusion process. An economic and effective technology was explored in this study in order to in-situ purify odors generated from dispersed sources.
Subject Area水处理工程
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/576
Collection水污染控制实验室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
高敏. 臭味气体原位生物净化新技术研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2010.
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