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丽江市低碳旅游分析与低碳城市发展评价
其他题名Low Carbon Tourism Analysis and Assesment of the Low Carbon City Development in Lijiang City
唐明方
学位类型博士
导师吴钢,董仁才
2013-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业环境经济与环境管理
关键词低碳 碳排放 丽江 低碳旅游 低碳城市 Low Carbon Carbon Emissions Lijiang Low Carbon Tourism Low Carbon City
其他摘要      全球气候变化给人类的可持续发展带来重大挑战。中国城市普遍面临着向低碳模式转型的严峻形势,发展低碳城市战略是实现城市可持续发展的必由之路。本研究基于对丽江市碳排放清单的核算,分析旅游业的碳排放结构与影响因素,通过充分借鉴国内外已有的研究成果,构建具有普遍适应性的低碳城市评价框架体系,综合考核和评价城市低碳发展水平,以期为管理部门制定低碳战略规划和政策提供有力的科学依据。
(1)通过对丽江市工业、农业、林业等部门进行调查,建立丽江市碳排放清单。2005—2009年间,丽江市碳排放总体呈现波动递增趋势,2008年出现负增长,2009年碳排放达到五年峰值。能源活动是最大的温室气体排放部门,工业和交通运输业贡献了大量温室气体排放。工业单位国内生产总值碳排放最高,钢铁行业占工业碳排放比重最大。通过对丽江市旅游业碳排放测算得到结果:不计市外交通,旅游业碳排放占丽江市碳排放总量的10%,以飞机为交通工具的远距离旅游活动的碳排放比重最大。旅游业单位国内生产总值碳排放远低于工业和建筑业,是丽江市当前最适合发展低碳经济的领域。
(2)以旅游的主体为着手点,了解游客对低碳旅游的认知程度和消费现状,剖析游客对低碳旅游的认知和意愿的影响因素。结果表明:低碳旅游的认知程度普遍较高,受教育程度、入住酒店类型和年平均旅游次数与低碳旅游认知程度显著相关。游客对低碳旅游的意愿普遍较高,入住酒店类型、年平均旅游次数和人均旅游花费与低碳旅游意愿负向显著相关。定期旅行的游客对低碳旅游的认知最强,但行为的改变意愿却最弱。不经常旅行的游客则更愿意实现低碳旅游,但实际上他们对于旅游模式改变的影响也较小。低碳旅游的推行实际上也存在一定的难度和问题,这种意识和行动之间的差距与游客的个人利益挂钩。对丽江市酒店能源消费进行问卷调查,分析影响酒店住宿业能源消耗的驱动因子。电力能源消费比重最大,丽江市调查酒店平均能源使用强度为119.87kWh/m2,结果与越南和新西兰接近,远远低于台湾、新加坡、加拿大和英国。Pearson相关分析表明,酒店星级、客房数、客房收入、员工密度与能源使用强度显著相关,酒店能源消耗越高,表明酒店的规模更大,星级会越高,需要雇佣更多的员工,从而带来更加可观的收入。 (3)从城市的碳排产出、能源消费、交通建筑、资源环境和低碳管理方面,构建具有普遍适应性的低碳城市评价指标体系,确定评价阈值及考核评分方法,综合评价丽江、厦门、广州、北京、深圳、武汉、天津和兰州八个城市低碳发展水平。从总分来看,低碳城市发展水平得分最高的是深圳市,兰州市得分在八个城市中排名最后。北京市协调发展程度最高,武汉市能源消费准则层表现突出,但其他方面发展相对落后。丽江市资源环境方面得分综合第一,但交通建筑和能源消费环节相对薄弱。 (4)基于研究结果,针对丽江市低碳发展提出相应的发展对策和建议。应加强管理部门规划,明确目标量化责任机制;推进节能降耗,积极发展低碳清洁能源;加快淘汰落后产能,推进新型工业化;优化交通运输结构,发展低碳绿色交通网络;发展现代服务业,推行低碳旅游模式。;       Global climate change has brought about great challenges for human sustainable development. Most cities in China are now facing the severe situation of transformation to the low carbon model. Developing the low carbon city strategy is the only way to realize the sustainable development of the city. In the present study, based on the research of carbon emissions inventory of Lijiang city, the structure of carbon emission and influencing factors of tourism were analyzed. Draw on the existing research results at home and abroad, the evaluation frame of low carbon city with general adaptability was constructed,and the development level of low carbon city was evaluated with comprehensive perspective, to provide a strong scientific basis for management to establish the strategic planning and policy of low carbon development.
(1)Based on investigations to the sections of industry, agriculture and forestry, carbon emissions inventory of Lijiang city was established. From 2005 to 2009, the total carbon emissions of Lijiang presented fluctuating increase in five years. Negative growth appeared in 2008, and carbon emissions reached a peak value of five years in 2009. The section of energy activities was the most greenhouse gas contributor, and industry and transportation industry contributed large amounts of greenhouse gas emissions. The carbon emission per unit of GDP of industry was maximum, iron and steel industry accounted for the largest proportion of industrial carbon emissions. The caculation of carbon emissions of tourism in Lijiang showed that the tourism carbon emissions accounted for 10% of the total carbon emissions in Lijiang when outside traffic of Lijiang wasn‘t taken into account. The long distance travel by airplane accounted for the largest proportion of carbon emissions. The tourism carbon emission per unit of GDP was far lower than that of industry and construction, which was the most suitable for the development of low carbon  economy in Lijiang.
(2)Based on the tourism subject, the cognition of low carbon tourism and consumption status were investigated, and the influencing factors of tourist's cognition and willingness of low carbon tourism were analyzed. The results indicated that tourist‘s cognition towards low carbon tourism was quite high, which showed a significant positive correlation with tourists‘ educational level, types of hotels they stay and the annual average number of trips. Tourist respondents were generally willing to accept low carbon tourism, and the willingness for low carbon tourism showed a significant negative correlation with types of hotels they stay, the annual average number of trips and per capita tourist spending. Regular tourists had the highest level of cognition of low carbon tourism but the least intention to change their way of traveling. Those who travel less were more willing to accept low carbon tourism, which, however, had less impact on changing the pattern of their tours. There were certain difficulties and problems in the actual promotion of low carbon tourism. The gap between awareness and action can be attributed to personal benefits. Through the questionnaire investigation of energy consumption in Lijiang hotels, the driving factors of energy consumption were analyzed. Electric energy consumption was the largest, and the average energy use intensity was 119.87 kWh/m2. The result was similar to the example of New Zealand and Vietnam, and less energy demanding than in Taiwan, in Singapore, in Canada and UK. It was shown that there was a significant correlation with the number of guest room, hotel star-rating, room revenue and number of workers. It was noted that massive energy consumption of hotels often indicated that the scale of this hotel is substantially greater, better rated, with more employees, and considerably more revenue.
(3)A evaluation index system of low-carbon city with general adaptability was established, and the threshold value and assessment method were determined from the aspects of carbon emission output, energy consumption, transportation and construction, resource and environment and low carbon management. The current low carbon development level of Lijiang, Xiamen, Guangzhou, Beijing, Shenzhen, Wuhan, Tianjin and Lanzhou were evaluated. In the view of total score, the highest score of low carbon city development level was Shenzhen, the lowest was Lanzhou. Beijing had the highest degree of coordinated development. Although Wuhan was excellent in the energy consumption criterion, it was relatively backward in development of other aspects. Lijiang got the highest score on the resource and environment, but was relatively weak in the aspects of traffic and construction and energy consumption.
(4)Based on the results of this study, the corresponding countermeasures and suggestions aiming at the development of low carbon city of Lijiang were put forward, such as strengthen the management planning, specify target quantization responsibility mechanism; promote energy-saving and cost-reducing, develop low carbon clean energy positively; accelerate the elimination of backward capacity, promote new industrialization; optimize the transportation structure, develop low carbon green traffic network; develop modern service industry, push low carbon tourism model.

文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/7665
专题城市与区域生态国家重点实验室
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唐明方. 丽江市低碳旅游分析与低碳城市发展评价[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.
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