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题名: 生物炭对设施栽培土壤硝化和反硝化微生物群落的影响研究
作者: 王晓辉
学位类别: 硕士
答辩日期: 2013-05
授予单位: 中国科学院研究生院
授予地点: 北京
导师: 朱永官
关键词: 生物炭 ; 设施栽培土壤 ; 硝化作用 ; 反硝化作用 ; 实时定量PCR ; Biochar ; Greenhouse soil ; Nitrification ; Denitrification ; Real-time PCR
其他题名: Effect of Biochar on Nitrifying and Denitrifying communities in Greenhouse Soils
学位专业: 环境工程
中文摘要:       设施栽培土壤在人工调控下进行生产,由于大量施用氮肥导致设施栽培土壤酸化、生产力下降且土壤N2O排放增加。N2O不仅可以产生温室效应,还可以间接破坏臭氧层,使其在全球气候变化和生态环境变化研究中备受关注。因此,为了改善设施栽培退化土壤质量和降低土壤N2O的排放,对设施栽培土壤氮循环的研究已迫在眉睫。
     本研究选用酸化设施栽培土壤,添加质量比为5%的生物炭开展盆栽试验,综合运用核酸提取、实时荧光定量PCR等分子生物学技术,分析生物炭对土壤中硝化和反硝化功能微生物群落丰度及活性表达、N2O排放通量和油菜体内硝酸盐与亚硝酸盐含量的影响。论文的主要研究成果如下:
      生物炭对功能微生物群落丰度的影响:结果表明,添加稻秆生物炭显著增加土壤中AOA、AOB及nirK-基因型反硝化菌的丰度,提高了土壤的硝化潜势;而添加污泥生物炭却没有显著影响上述功能微生物的丰度及相应生态功能。此外,添加稻秆生物炭还可以显著减少油菜植株内的硝酸盐与亚硝酸盐的含量,而添加污泥生物炭则有效降低油菜体内的铵态氮盐含量。
      生物炭对功能微生物群落丰度和活性表达的影响:本试验基于上一试验结果,选用效果较好的稻秆生物炭进行盆栽试验,分析生物炭对土壤中硝化和反硝化功能微生物群落的丰度与活性表达、N2O排放通量及油菜体内硝酸盐与亚硝酸盐含量的影响。研究结果表明,施用生物炭能够显著增加设施栽培土壤的pH值,有效抑制设施栽培退化土壤的酸化,提高土壤的全碳、全氮含量及碳氮比。而且施用稻秆生物炭能够显著增加土壤中AOA、AOB及nirK-、nirS-基因型反硝化菌的群落丰度,提高AOA和nosZ-基因型反硝化菌的活性表达,同时提高了设施栽培土壤的硝化与反硝化潜势,并且在不种植蔬菜作物时,施用稻秆生物炭对设施栽培土壤N2O的排放具有明显抑制作用。此外,施用稻秆生物炭能够大幅度增加油菜植株地上部的生物量,同时能够显著降低油菜体内的亚硝酸盐的含量,提高设施栽培蔬菜的品质,改善农产品安全。上述结果表明,施用生物炭能够在一定程度上定向调控土壤氮元素转化,降低设施栽培土壤温室气体排放及减少蔬菜体内的亚硝酸盐含量。
      本试验系统研究了生物炭对我国典型设施退化土壤中的氮转化相关功能微生物的影响,为生物炭影响土壤中氮转化过程的相关机制提供了理论基础,为修复设施栽培退化土壤及减少蔬菜中的硝酸盐与亚硝酸盐含量提供了新方法,具有重要的生态学和实践意义。
英文摘要:      Greenhouse soils were significantly under manual control in the agricultural production. Due to extensive application of nitrogenous fertilizer, greenhouse soils were degraded, showing soil acidification, declined productivity and increased soil N2O emissions. N2O is a powerful atmospheric greenhouse gas, depletes the ozone layer and enhances ultraviolet radiation to ground surface as well. Thus, numerous researches focused on the effects of N2O on global climate change and ecological environmental change. Therefore, in order to improve the quality of degraded greenhouse soil and mitigate soil N2O emissions, the greenhouse soil nitrogen transformation needs to be research imminently.
      The effect of biochar on abundances and expression activities of functional microbial communities involved in nitrification and denitrification and soil N2O emission fluxes were investigated by a pot trial, amending 5% (wt/wt) biochar to a degraded greenhouse soil and using nucleic acid extraction and real-time PCR. The main results of this study are as follows:
1. The effect of biochar on abundances of functional microbial communities involved in nitrification and denitrification: Results showed that only the rice straw biochar significantly increased the abundances of AOA, AOB and nirK-harboring denitrifiers in the soil, and sequently improved soil potential nitrification rates. In addition, the rice straw biochar also reduced the concentrations of nitrate and nitrite in shoots of rape seedlings, whereas the sludge biochar significantly decreased the concentrations of ammonium in shoots. This study, for the first time, examined the effect of biochar on abundances of nitrifying and denitrifying communities in the degraded greenhouse soil. These findings provided mechanistic information on how biochar affects soil nitrogen transformations, and the way to remediate the degraded greenhouse soil and to reduce the concentrations of nitrate and nitrite in vegetables.
2. Based on the above experiment results, a pot trial, amending 5% (wt/wt) rice straw biochar to a degraded greenhouse soil, was conducted to systematically study the effect of biochar on abundances and expression activities of functional microbial communities involved in nitrification and denitrification and soil N2O emission fluxes. Results showed that the rice straw biochar significantly increased pH, concentrations of total carbon and total nitrogen and CN ratio of the degraded greenhouse soil. Futhermore, rice straw biochar amendment also significantly increased the abundance of AOA, AOB, nirK-, nirS-harboring denitrifiers and expression activities of AOA, nosZ-harboring denitrifiers in the soil, and sequently improved soil potential nitrification rates and potential denitrification activities. In addition, rice straw biochar significantly mitigated N2O emissions from greenhouse soils. Moreover, rice straw biochar significantly increased the shoot biomass of rape seedlings and decreased the concentrations of nitrite in shoots of rape seedlings.
      This study systematically studied the effect of biochar on abundances and expression activities of nitrifying and denitrifying microbial communities and soil N2O emissions in the degraded greenhouse soil. These findings contribute to the current understanding about how biochar affects soil nitrogen transformations, and the way to mitigate soil N2O emissions and to reduce the concentrations of nitrite in vegetables.
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/7674
Appears in Collections:中澳联合土壤环境研究室_学位论文

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Recommended Citation:
王晓辉.生物炭对设施栽培土壤硝化和反硝化微生物群落的影响研究[硕士].北京.中国科学院研究生院.2013
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