RCEES OpenIR  > 环境水质学国家重点实验室
新的生物毒性测试方法及其在水生态毒理研究中的应用
Alternative TitleDEVELOPMENTAND APPLICATION OF NEW BIOASSAY METHODS IN AQUATIC ECOTOXICOLOGY
马梅
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor王子健
2002-06-01
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline环境科学
Keyword生物毒性测试 Bioassay 致突变性 Mutagenicity 发光菌 Luminescent Bacterium Spmds Spmds Cu Cu
Abstract本论文针对目前普遍采用的发光菌毒性测试采用海水发光菌存在的问题,建立了以青海湖弧菌为生物种的新的测试方法体系;针对环境样品毒性测试中基体干扰等问题,发展了利用半渗透膜抽样技术作为有机有毒污染物样品富集和前处理手段的方法;同时将生物毒性测试技术应用于水处理过程中毒性变化规律研究和环境风险评价。所取得的主要进展包括:
1. 建立了基于新型淡水发光菌(Vibrio-qinghaiensis sp. Nov.-- Q67)的发光菌急性毒性测试体系。系统研究了pH、菌密度、反应时间、离子强度及天然水体中几种主要离子对测试的影响,通过对比研究方法,考察了对利用Q67 和Vibro fisheri -T3 对重金属、农药和氯酚等典型污染物毒性测试的结果,利用Q67 测试天然水体急性毒性和水处理厂过程毒性变化规律,通过研究认为与
T3 相比,所研制的Q67 淡水发光菌测试体系对淡水水体和水处理过程急性毒性测试具有明显优势。
2. 将半渗透膜技术(triolein-SPMD)作为水样中有机组分的富集技术,分别针对洋河和城市污水生物处理过程中有毒有机污染物毒性变化进行了发光菌急性毒性检测。结果表明将triolein-SPMD 选择性富集有机污染物特点和生物测试技术结合在一起可以有效监测水体有毒有机污染物毒性,为复杂水样中优先污染物的毒性监测开辟了新的途径;
3. 应用生物毒性测试方法对自来水厂各处理段出水和北京官厅水库/永定河水体的致突变进行了分析测试,并和同期进行的化学分析结果进行了比较。通过具体案例研究,提出生物毒性测试技术作为化学监测的一种补充手段,在评价水体污染环境风险和工艺过程优劣方面具有重要应用价值;
4. 研究探讨了铜的形态分布对淡水藻(Scenedesmus subspicatus 86.81 SAG)的毒性影响机制,发现溶液相铜的络合反应大幅度降低了铜在藻细胞表面的吸附,因此降低了铜的毒性。通过研究认为铜对藻的急性毒性是由于铜占据了藻细胞表面结合位,引起钠离子通道阻塞,提出可以利用细胞外 Cu 浓度预测Cu对藻的毒性,从而避免了复杂溶液化学对毒性的影响。
Other AbstractIn the thesis, a new lumino bioassay system for fresh water samples using
Vibrio-qinghaiensis sp. Nov.-- Q67 was established; a triolein-filled semipermeable
membrane device (triolein-SPMD) was used as a passive sampling procedure for
preconcentration of organic pollutants from water for further bioassay; bioassays for acute toxicity and mutagenicity were applied in assessing ecotoxicology of fresh
water pollution and efficiency of detoxification processes in wastewater treatment.
The major progresses were as follows:
1. The influences of pH, initial density, exposure time, ionic strength as well as the
influence of the major cation and anion in natural fresh water to Q67 bioassay
results were studied. A new lumino bioassay system for fresh water samples using
Vibrio-qinghaiensis sp. Nov.-- Q67 was established. The bioassay was then
applied to evaluate the toxicity of heavy metal compounds, pesticides, chlorophenols, fresh water samples and water samples from treatment processes.
The Q67 bioassay has advantages such as avoiding the limitations of Vibrio fischeri
(T3 or Microtox) for using sodium chloride in the culture medium.
2. Combining the application of triolein-filled semipermeable membrane device
(triolein-SPMD) as a passive sampling procedure for preconcentration of organic
pollutants from water and bioassays was performed in natural waters and water
treatment processes. The results showed that triolein-SPMD was an effective
sample pretreatment tool for toxic evaluation of pollutants in aquatic environment.
This work extended the application of triolein-SPMD and showed the
effectiveness of monitoring POPs using triolein-SPMD.
3. Bioassays were applied for assessing the acute toxicity and mutageneicity of fresh water samples collected from Guanting reservoir and Yongdinghe River and
samples from different treatment processes of Beijing water works. Through these
cases studies, it was concluded that bioassays are complementary tool in addition
to the chemical monitoring and a necessary tool in assessing the efficiency of
detoxication processes.
4. Accumulation and growth inhibition of Cu to fresh water alga (Scenedesmus
subspicatus 86.81 SAG) and the influences of copper speciation were evaluated.
These results demonstrated that both complexation of copper in aqueous could
reduce the adsorption and, therefore the acute toxicity of Cu to alga. It was
concluded that the acute toxicity of copper to alga was due to the competition of
copper with calcium for active sites or biotic ligands at cell wall and the results of
blocking the Na-channel. It was proposed to use concentration of extracellular Cu
(Cuextracellular) as predictor of copper toxicity in complex matrix to avoid the
influences of solution chemistry.
Subject Area环境水质学
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.rcees.ac.cn/handle/311016/802
Collection环境水质学国家重点实验室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
马梅. 新的生物毒性测试方法及其在水生态毒理研究中的应用[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2002.
Files in This Item:
File Name/Size DocType Version Access License
新的生物毒性测试方法及其在水生态毒理研究(2297KB) 开放获取LicenseApplication Full Text
Related Services
Recommend this item
Bookmark
Usage statistics
Export to Endnote
Google Scholar
Similar articles in Google Scholar
[马梅]'s Articles
Baidu academic
Similar articles in Baidu academic
[马梅]'s Articles
Bing Scholar
Similar articles in Bing Scholar
[马梅]'s Articles
Terms of Use
No data!
Social Bookmark/Share
All comments (0)
No comment.
 

Items in the repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.