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First report of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the Indus Drainage System: Occurrence, source and environmental risk
Khan, Kifayatullah; Younas, Muhammad; Zhou, Yunqiao; Sharif, Hafiz Muhammad Adeel; Li, Xu; Yaseen, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Sobhy Mostafa; Baninla, Yvette; Cao, Xianghui; Lu, Yonglong
AbstractPerfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are of global interest due to their persistence in the aquatic environment. This study assessed the occurrence of PFAAs in the Indus Drainage System and discerned their potential sources and environmental risks for the first time in Pakistan. 13 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) and 4 perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) were analyzed to verify the dominant prevalence of short-chain PFAAs in the environment since the phase-out of long-chain perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). A significant variation (p <= 0.05) of individual PFAAs between the monitoring sites was confirmed by data normality tests Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk, suggesting that different locations contribute differently to individual PFAAs concentrations. Sigma PFAAs concentrations in riverine water and sediments ranged from 2.28 to 221.75 ng/L and 0.78-29.19 ng/g dw, respectively. PFBA, PFPeA, and PFHxA were the most abundant PFAAs, and on average accounted for 14.64, 13.75, and 12.97 ng/L of Sigma PFAAs in riverine water and 0.34, 0.64, and 0.79 ng/g dw of Sigma PFAAs in sediments. Sigma PFAAs mean contamination in the drainage was significantly (p < 0.05) high in River Chenab followed by River Indus > Soan > Ravi > Kabul > Swat with more prevalence of short chain (C4-C7) PFCAs followed by PFOA, PFBS, PFOS, PFNA, PFDA, PFHxS, PFUnDA, and PFDoDA. The correlation analysis determined the PFAAs' fate and distribution along the drainage, indicating that PFAAs with carbon chains C4-C12, except for PFSAs with carbon chains C6-C8, were most likely contaminated by the same source, the values of Kd and Koc increased linearly with the length of the perfluoroalkyl carbon chain, better understand the transport and partitioning of individual PFAAs between riverine water and sediments, where the HCA and PCA discerned industrial/municipal wastewater discharge, agricultural and surface runoff from nearby fields, and urban localities as potential sources of PFAAs contamination. The collective mass flux of short-chain (C4-C7) PFCAs was 5x higher than that of PFOS + PFOA, suggesting a continuous shift in the production and usage of fluorinated replacements for long-chain PFAAs with short-chain homologs. In terms of risk, individual PFAAs pollution in the drainage was within the world's risk thresholds for human health, with the exception of PFBA, PFPeA, PFHpA, PFHxA, PFOA, PFNA, and PFBS, whereas for ecology, the concentrations of individual PFAAs did not exceed the ecological risk thresholds of the United States of America, Canada, European Union (EU), Italy, Australia, and New Zealand, with the exception of PFSAs, whose detected individual concentrations were significantly higher than the EU, Australian and New Zealander PFSAs guidelines of 0.002 mu g/L, 0.00047 mu g/L, 0.00065 mu g/L, 0.00013 mu g/L, and 0.00023 mu g/L, respectively, which may pose chronic risks to the regional ecosystem and population.
Department城市与区域生态国家重点实验室 ; 城市与区域生态国家重点实验室
Document Type期刊论文
Corresponding AuthorKhan, Kifayatullah
Affiliation1.Chinese Acad Sci, Res Ctr Ecoenvironm Sci, State Key Lab Urban & Reg Ecol, Beijing 100085, Peoples R China
2.Univ Swat, Dept Environm & Conservat Sci, Swat 19130, Khyber Pakhtunk, Pakistan
3.Shenzhen Univ, Coll Chem & Environm Engn, Shenzhen 518060, Peoples R China
4.Beijing Acad Agr & Forestry Sci, Inst Qual Stand & Testing Technol, Beijing 100097, Peoples R China
5.Univ Peshawar, Inst Chem Sci, Peshawar 25120, Pakistan
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Khan, Kifayatullah,Younas, Muhammad,Zhou, Yunqiao,et al. First report of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the Indus Drainage System: Occurrence, source and environmental risk[J]. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH,2022,211(0):113113.
APA Khan, Kifayatullah.,Younas, Muhammad.,Zhou, Yunqiao.,Sharif, Hafiz Muhammad Adeel.,Li, Xu.,...&Lu, Yonglong.(2022).First report of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the Indus Drainage System: Occurrence, source and environmental risk.ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH,211(0),113113.
MLA Khan, Kifayatullah,et al."First report of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the Indus Drainage System: Occurrence, source and environmental risk".ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH 211.0(2022):113113.
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